bastard vs illegitimate what difference

what is difference between bastard and illegitimate

English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈbɑːs.təd/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈbæs.tɚd/

Etymology

From Middle English bastard, bastarde, from Anglo-Norman bastard (illegitimate child), from Frankish *bāst (marriage) (probably via Medieval Latin bastardus; compare Middle Dutch bast (lust, heat)) and derogatory suffix -ard (pejorative agent noun suffix), from Proto-Germanic *banstuz (bond, tie) (compare West Frisian boask, boaste (marriage)), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰendʰ- (to tie, bind); or equivalent to bast +‎ -ard. Cognate with French bâtard (bastard), West Frisian bastert (bastard), Dutch bastaard (bastard), German Bastard (bastard), Icelandic bastarður (bastard). Probably originally referred to a child from a polygynous marriage of heathen Germanic custom — a practice not sanctioned by the Christian churches. Related to boose.

Alternatively, the Old French form may originate from the term fils de bast (packsaddle son), meaning a child conceived on an improvised bed (medieval saddles often doubled as beds while traveling).

Noun

bastard (plural bastards)

  1. A person who was born out of wedlock, and hence often considered an illegitimate descendant.
    Synonyms: love-child, born in the vestry, illegitimate; see also Thesaurus:bastard
    • 1965, The Big Valley
      Jarrod: Who are you?
      Heath: Your father’s bastard son.
  2. A mongrel (biological cross between different breeds, groups or varieties).
  3. (vulgar or derogatory, typically referring to a man) A contemptible, inconsiderate, overly or arrogantly rude or spiteful person.
    Synonyms: son of a bitch, arsehole, asshole; see also Thesaurus:git, Thesaurus:jerk
    • 1997, South Park television program
      “Oh my God, they killed Kenny!” “You bastards!”
  4. (often humorous) A man, a fellow, a male friend.
  5. (often preceded by ‘poor’) A person deserving of pity.
  6. (informal) A child who does not know his or her father.
  7. (informal) Something extremely difficult or unpleasant to deal with.
  8. A variation that is not genuine; something irregular or inferior or of dubious origin, fake or counterfeit.
    • 1622, Francis Bacon, Bacon’s History of the Reign of King Henry VII, Cambridge University Press (1902), page 62:
      There were also made good and politic laws that parliament, against usury, which is the bastard use of money…
  9. An intermediate-grade file; also bastard file.
  10. A sweet wine.
  11. A sword that is midway in length between a short-sword and a long sword; also bastard sword.
  12. An inferior quality of soft brown sugar, obtained from syrups that have been boiled several times.
  13. A large mould for straining sugar.
  14. A writing paper of a particular size.
  15. (Britain, politics, derogatory) A Eurosceptic Conservative MP, especially in the government of John Major.
    • 2000, Peter Hobday, Managing the message, Allison & Busby
      If you are a politician, you make sure that you know all such references in case an interviewer suddenly asks, ‘Are you one of the bastards in Mr Major’s cabinet?’
    • 2011, Duncan Hall, A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action, Lulu.com →ISBN, page 62
      While John Major managed to get the Maastricht Treaty through parliament, despite the efforts of the “bastards” in his cabinet, the 2001 Conservative General Election campaign was fought on entirely eurosceptic lines.
    • 2014, Melvin J. Lasky, Profanity, Obscenity and the Media, Transaction Publishers →ISBN
      One “bastard,” the Minister for Wales, John Redwood (who mounted an unsuccessful campaign to displace the Tory chief, John Major), was removed in a Cabinet reshuffle; but was his young successor William Hague any more reliable?

Usage notes

  • (one born to unmarried parents): Not always regarded as a stigma (though it is one in e.g. canon law, prohibitive for clerical office without papal indult): Norman duke William, the Conqueror of England, is referred to in state documents as “William the Bastard”; a Burgundian prince was even officially styled Great Bastard of Burgundy.

Antonyms

  • legitimate

Derived terms

Translations

Adjective

bastard (comparative more bastard, superlative most bastard)

  1. Of or like a bastard (illegitimate human descendant).
  2. Of or like a bastard (bad person).
  3. Of or like a mongrel, bastardized creature/cross.
  4. Of abnormal, irregular or otherwise inferior qualities (size, shape etc).
  5. Spurious, lacking authenticity: counterfeit, fake.
    • a. 1677, Isaac Barrow, Of Self-conceit (sermon)
      that bastard self-love which is so vicious in itself, and productive of so many vices
  6. (Should we delete(+) this sense?) (of a language) imperfect; not spoken or written well or in the classical style; broken.
  7. Used in the vernacular name of a species to indicate that it is similar in some way to another species, often (but not always) one of another genus.
  8. (Britain, vulgar) Very unpleasant.
  9. (printing) Abbreviated, as the half title in a page preceding the full title page of a book.
  10. (theater lighting) Consisting of one predominant color blended with small amounts of complementary color; used to replicate natural light because of their warmer appearance.

Translations

Interjection

bastard!

  1. (rare) Exclamation of strong dismay or strong sense of being upset.
    • 2001, Stephen King, “The Death of Jack Hamilton”, in Everything’s Eventual, Simon and Schuster (2007), →ISBN, page 90:
      Jack says, “Oh! Bastard! I’m hit!” That bullet had to have come in the busted back window and how it missed Johnnie to hit Jack I don’t know.
    • 2004, Cecelia Ahern, PS, I Love You (novel), Hyperion, →ISBN, page 7:
      “Yes, I’m hhhhowwwwwwcch!” she yelped as she stubbed her toe against the bedpost. “Shit, shit, fuck, bastard, shit, crap!”
    • 2006, Emily Franklin, Love from London, Penguin, →ISBN, page 212:
      “Isn’t she lovely?” Clem asks, hopefully rhetorically. “Oh, bastard. I’ve got to go—that’s my signal. []

Translations

Verb

bastard (third-person singular simple present bastards, present participle bastarding, simple past and past participle bastarded)

  1. (obsolete) To bastardize.
    • After her husband’s death she was matter of tragedy , having lived to see her brother beheaded , and her two sons deposed from the crown , bastarded in their blood

Further reading

  • bastard at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • “bastard” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  • “mongrel” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.

Anagrams

  • Barstad, batards, tabards

Czech

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈbastart]
  • Hyphenation: ba‧s‧tard

Noun

bastard m anim

  1. bastard, love child (person born to unmarried parents)
    Synonym: levoboček
  2. bastard, mongrel (biological cross between different breeds, groups or varieties)
  3. bastard, asshole

Declension

Further reading

  • bastard in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • bastard in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish

Etymology

From Old French bastard.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bastard/, [b̥aˈsd̥ɑːˀd̥]
  • IPA(key): /bastar/, [b̥aˈsd̥ɑːˀ]

Noun

bastard c (singular definite bastarden, plural indefinite bastarder)

  1. crossbreed (an organism produced by mating of individuals of different varieties or breeds)
    Synonyms: hybrid, krydsning
  2. mongrel (someone of mixed kind or uncertain origin, especially a dog)
  3. (dated) bastard (person who was born out of wedlock)

Inflection


Irish

Alternative forms

  • bastairt, bastart

Etymology

Borrowed from Middle English bastard, from Old French bastard.

Noun

bastard m (genitive singular bastaird, nominative plural bastaird)

  1. bastard

Declension

Derived terms

Mutation

References

  • “bastard” in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Gregory Toner, Maire Ní Mhaonaigh, Sharon Arbuthnot, Dagmar Wodtko, Maire-Luise Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “bastard”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  • Entries containing “bastard” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “bastard” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Middle English

Alternative forms

  • bastarde, basterd, bastart

Etymology

From Anglo-Norman bastard; equivalent to bast (illegitimacy) +‎ -ard.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbastard/, /ˈbastaːrd/, /ˈbastərd/

Noun

bastard (plural bastardes)

  1. an illegitimate child, especially a noble one; a bastard
  2. a kind of fortified wine, often with spices added
  3. (rare) a heretic or sinner; one separated from one’s deity
  4. (rare) a dog that isn’t purebred; a mutt or mongrel
  5. (rare) a botanical tendril or offshoot

Derived terms

  • bastardie

Descendants

  • English: bastard
  • Scots: bastart, bastert

References

  • “bastā̆rd, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2019-03-03.

Adjective

bastard

  1. coming not from wedlock, coming from bastardy; illegitimate
  2. low-quality, inferior, imitation; of bad manufacture
  3. (rare) not purebred; of mixed lineage
  4. (rare) made using or incorporating fortified wine
  5. (rare) wrong, erroneous, incorrect

Descendants

  • English: bastard
  • Scots: bastart, bastert

References

  • “bastā̆rd, n. as adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2019-03-03.

Middle French

Alternative forms

  • bastart

Etymology

From Old French bastard, from Late Latin bastardus.

Noun

bastard m (plural bastars, feminine singular bastarde, feminine plural bastardes)

  1. bastard (child born outside of wedlock)

Adjective

bastard m (feminine singular bastarde, masculine plural bastars, feminine plural bastardes)

  1. bastard

Descendants

  • French: bâtard

Old French

Etymology

From Late Latin bastardus, of Germanic origin, possibly Frankish.

Noun

bastard m (oblique plural bastarz or bastartz, nominative singular bastarz or bastartz, nominative plural bastard)

  1. bastard (person conceived to unmarried parents)
  2. (derogatory, usually vocative) bastard (insult)

Adjective

bastard m (oblique and nominative feminine singular bastarde)

  1. bastard (conceived by unmarried parents)

Declension

Descendants

  • French: bâtard
  • Galician: bastardo
  • Middle Dutch: bastaert
    • Dutch: bastaard
      • Indonesian: bastar
  • Middle English: bastard, bastarde, basterd, bastart
    • English: bastard
    • Scots: bastart, bastert

Romanian

Etymology

From Italian bastardo.

Noun

bastard m (plural bastarzi)

  1. bastard

Declension



English

Etymology

Based on Latin illegitimus; equivalent to il- +‎ legitimate.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɪlɪˈdʒɪtɪmət/
  • (General American) IPA(key): [ɪlɨˈd͡ʒɪɾəmɨt]
  • (General New Zealand) IPA(key): /ɘlɘˈdʒɘtɘmɘt/

Adjective

illegitimate (comparative more illegitimate, superlative most illegitimate)

  1. Not conforming to known principles, or established or accepted rules or standards.
    Synonym: invalid
    Antonym: valid
    • 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, London: J. Johnson, Part 1, Chapter 2, p. 38,[1]
      [] it may be impossible to convince them that the illegitimate power which they obtain, by degrading themselves, is a curse []
    • 1927, J. B. S. Haldane, “Possible Worlds” in Possible Worlds and Other Essays, London: Chatto and Windus,[2]
      The so-called interstellar space [] has not the properties of ordinary space. It will not conduct sound, nor can a human being move through it. It is therefore illegitimate to measure it in miles.
    • 2009, J. M. Coetzee, Summertime, New York: Viking, “Martin,” p. 209,[3]
      Our attitude was that, to put it briefly, our presence there [in South Africa] was legal but illegitimate. We had an abstract right to be there, a birthright, but the basis of that right was fraudulent. Our presence was grounded in a crime, namely colonial conquest, perpetuated by apartheid.
  2. Not in accordance with the law.
    Synonyms: illegal, illicit, unlawful
    Antonym: legal
    • 1914, Theodore Dreiser, The Titan, New York: John Lane, Chapter 54, p. 475,[4]
      [] if things went on at this rate it would be doubtful soon whether ever again he would be able to win another election by methods legitimate or illegitimate.
  3. Not sanctioned by marriage.
    • 1783, Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, Volume 1, Chapter 8, p. 317,[5]
      If we credit the scandal of the former [i.e. his enemies], Artaxerxes sprang from the illegitimate commerce of a tanner’s wife with a common soldier.
    • 1916, Abraham Brill (translator), Leonardo da Vinci: A Psychosexual Study of an Infantile Reminiscence, New York: Moffat, Yard, Chapter 6, p. 118,[6]
      His illegitimate birth deprived him of the influence of a father until perhaps his fifth year []
    1. Born to unmarried parents.
      Synonyms: natural; see also Thesaurus:illegitimate
      • c. 1601, William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, Act V, Scene 7,[7]
        I am a bastard begot, bastard instructed, bastard in mind, bastard in valour, in every thing illegitimate.
      • 1839, Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, Chapter 51,[8]
        ‘This child,’ said Mr. Brownlow, drawing Oliver to him, and laying his hand upon his head, ‘is your half-brother; the illegitimate son of your father []
    2. (dated) Having a child or children with a person to whom one is not married.
      • 1876, George Eliot, Daniel Deronda, Book 3, Chapter 27,[9]
        She had only to collect her memories, which proved to her that “anybody” regarded the illegitimate children as more rightfully to be looked shy on and deprived of social advantages than illegitimate fathers.
      • 1935, Carolyn Wells, The Beautiful Derelict, New York: Triangle Books, Chapter 13, p. 222,[10]
        I heard last night that a what-do-you-call it?—claimant?—has arrived who says Pat Wayne is his illegitimate father.
  4. Not correctly deduced.
    Synonyms: illogical, invalid
    Antonyms: logical, valid
    • 1658, Kenelm Digby, A Late Discourse [] Touching the Cure of Wounds by the Powder of Sympathy, London: R. Lownes and T. Davies, p. 75,[11]
      [] in natural things we must have recourse [] to experience. And all reasoning that is not supported so, ought to be repudiated, or at least suspected to be illegitimate.
    • 1734, George Berkeley, The Analyst, London: J. Tonson, Section 27, pp. 44-45,[12]
      [] it is illegitimate to reduce an Equation, by subducting from one Side a Quantity when it is not to be destroyed, or when an equal Quantity is not subducted from the other Side of the Equation:
  5. Not authorized by good usage; not genuine.
    Synonym: spurious
    an illegitimate word
  6. (botany) Involving the fertilization of pistils by stamens not of their own length, in heterogonously dimorphic and trimorphic flowers.
    illegitimate union; illegitimate fertilization
    • 1877, Charles Darwin, The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species, Chapter 1,[13]
      [] the legitimate unions between the two forms of the above nine species of Primula are much more fertile than the illegitimate unions; although in the latter case pollen was always taken from a distinct plant of the same form.

Synonyms

  • See also Thesaurus:illegitimate

Antonyms

  • legitimate

Related terms

Translations

Further reading

  • illegitimate on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Noun

illegitimate (plural illegitimates)

  1. A person born to unmarried parents.
    Synonyms: natural child, lovechild, bastard
    • 1966, Jean Rhys, Wide Sargasso Sea, New York: Norton, Part 2, p. 96,[14]
      Her father and mine was a shameless man and of all his illegitimates I am the most unfortunate and poverty stricken.

Translations

Verb

illegitimate (third-person singular simple present illegitimates, present participle illegitimating, simple past and past participle illegitimated)

  1. (transitive) To make illegitimate.

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