become vs turn what difference

what is difference between become and turn

English

Etymology

A compound of the sources of be- and come.
From Middle English becomen, bicumen, from Old English becuman (to come (to), approach, arrive, enter, meet with, fall in with; happen, befall; befit), from Proto-Germanic *bikwemaną (to come around, come about, come across, come by), equivalent to be- (about, around) +‎ come. Cognate with Scots becum (to come, arrive, reach a destination), North Frisian bekommen, bykommen (to come by, obtain, receive), West Frisian bikomme (to come by, obtain, receive), Dutch bekomen (to come by, obtain, receive), German bekommen (to get, receive, obtain), Swedish bekomma (to receive, concern), Gothic ???????????????????????????? (biqiman, to come upon one, befall). Sense of “befit, suit” due to influence from Middle English cweme, icweme, see queem.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /bɪˈkʌm/, /bəˈkʌm/
    (Northern England) IPA(key): /bɪˈkʊm/, /bəˈkʊm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /bəˈkʌm/, /biˈkʌm/
  • Rhymes: -ʌm
  • Hyphenation: be‧come

Verb

become (third-person singular simple present becomes, present participle becoming, simple past became, past participle become or (rare, dialectal) becomen)

  1. (copulative) begin to be; turn into. [from 12th c.]
    Synonyms: get, turn, go
  2. (copulative) To come about; happen; come into being; arise. [from 12th c.]
  3. (transitive) To be proper for; to beseem. [from 13th c.]
    • 1610-11?, Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act III, scene ii:
      Ay, lord, she will become thy bed, I warrant,
      And bring thee forth brave brood.
    • 1892, Ambrose Bierce, “The Applicant,” in The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce, Volume II: In the Midst of Life (Tales of Soldiers and Civilians), New York: Gordian Press, 1966,[1]
      He was hatted, booted, overcoated, and umbrellaed, as became a person who was about to expose himself to the night and the storm on an errand of charity []
    • 1930, Duff Cooper, Talleyrand, Folio Society, 2010, p.7:
      His ordination [] enabled him to be independent of his parents, and to afford a manner of living which became his rank rather than his calling.
  4. (transitive) Of an adornment, piece of clothing etc.: to look attractive on (someone). [from 14th c.]
  5. (intransitive, obsolete) To arrive, come (to a place). [9th–18th c.]

Usage notes

  • In older forms of English, when the pronoun thou was in active use, and verbs used -est for distinct second-person singular indicative forms, the verb become had the form becomest, and had becamest for its past tense.
  • Similarly, when the ending -eth was in active use for third-person singular present indicative forms, the form becometh was used.

Synonyms

  • (to be suitable for): befit, suit

Translations

References

  • become in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • become in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • The Dictionary of the Scots Language
  • Douglas Harper (2001–2021), “become”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.


English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /tɜːn/
  • (General American) enPR: tûrn, IPA(key): /tɝn/
  • Homophones: tern, tarn
  • Rhymes: -ɜː(ɹ)n

Etymology 1

From Middle English turnen, from Old English turnian, tyrnan (to turn, rotate, revolve) and Old French torner (to turn), both from Latin tornāre (to round off, turn in a lathe), from tornus (lathe), from Ancient Greek τόρνος (tórnos, turning-lathe: a tool used for making circles), from Proto-Indo-European *terh₁- (to rub, rub by turning, turn, twist, bore). Cognate with Old English þrāwan (to turn, twist, wind). Displaced native Old English wendan.

Verb

turn (third-person singular simple present turns, present participle turning, simple past and past participle turned or (obsolete) turnt)

  1. To make a non-linear physical movement.
    1. (intransitive) Of a body, person, etc, to move around an axis through itself.
      • “A fine man, that Dunwody, yonder,” commented the young captain, as they parted, and as he turned to his prisoner. “We’ll see him on in Washington some day. He is strengthening his forces now against Mr. Benton out there. [].”
    2. (transitive) To change the direction or orientation of, especially by rotation.
    3. (intransitive) to change one’s direction of travel.
    4. (transitive) To shape (something) symmetrically by rotating it against a stationary cutting tool, as on a lathe.
    5. (by extension) To give form to; to shape or mould; to adapt.
    6. (transitive) To position (something) by folding it, or using its folds.
    7. (transitive, figuratively) To navigate through a book or other printed material.
    8. (transitive, cricket) Of a bowler, to make (the ball) move sideways off the pitch when it bounces.
    9. (intransitive, cricket) Of a ball, to move sideways off the pitch when it bounces.
  2. (intransitive) To change condition or attitude.
    1. (copulative) To become (begin to be).
      Synonyms: become, get
    2. (intransitive) To change the color of the leaves in the autumn.
    3. To change fundamentally; to metamorphose.
      1. (intransitive) To sour or spoil; to go bad.
      2. (transitive) To make acid or sour; to ferment; to curdle.
      3. (transitive, fantasy) To change (a person) into a vampire, werewolf, zombie, etc.
        • 2017, Michael J. Totten, Into the Wasteland: A Zombie Novel
          His companions had turned him on purpose. Annie, bless her heart, was immune.
    4. To reach a certain age.
    5. To hinge; to depend.
    6. To rebel; to go against something formerly tolerated.
    7. To change personal condition.
      1. (professional wrestling) To change personalities, such as from being a face (good guy) to heel (bad guy) or vice versa.
      2. To become giddy; said of the head or brain.
      3. To sicken; to nauseate.
      4. To be nauseated; said of the stomach.
  3. (obsolete, reflexive) To change one’s course of action; to take a new approach.
  4. (transitive, usually with over) To complete.
  5. (transitive) To make (money); turn a profit.
  6. (transitive, soccer) Of a player, to go past an opposition player with the ball in one’s control.
  7. To undergo the process of turning on a lathe.
  8. (obstetrics) To bring down the feet of a child in the womb, in order to facilitate delivery.
  9. (printing, dated) To invert a type of the same thickness, as a temporary substitute for any sort which is exhausted.
  10. (archaic) To translate.
    • 1735, Alexander Pope, The Prologue to the Satires
      who turns a Persian tale for half a crown
  11. (transitive, role-playing games) To magically or divinely attack undead.
Synonyms
  • (move around an axis through itself): rotate, spin, twirl
  • (change the direction or orientation of): rotate
  • (change one’s direction of travel): steer, swerve, tack
  • (nautical)
  • (position (something) by folding it back on itself):
  • (become): become, get, go
  • (rebel): rebel, revolt
  • (shape on a lathe): lathe
  • (go bad): go bad, go off, sour, spoil
  • (complete): complete
Derived terms
Translations

Etymology 2

Partly from Anglo-Norman *torn, from Latin turnus, from Ancient Greek τόρνος (tórnos), and partly an action noun from the verb turn.

Noun

turn (plural turns)

  1. A change of direction or orientation.
  2. A movement of an object about its own axis in one direction that continues until the object returns to its initial orientation.
    1. (geometry) A unit of plane angle measurement based on this movement.
  3. A walk to and fro.
    Synonym: promenade
  4. A chance to use (something) shared in sequence with others.
  5. A spell of work, especially the time allotted to a person in a rota or schedule.
  6. One’s chance to make a move in a game having two or more players.
  7. A figure in music, often denoted ~, consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again.
  8. The time required to complete a project.
    Synonym: turnaround
  9. A fit or a period of giddiness.
  10. A change in temperament or circumstance.
  11. (cricket) A sideways movement of the ball when it bounces (caused by rotation in flight).
  12. (poker) The fourth communal card in Texas hold ’em.
  13. (poker, obsolete) The flop (the first three community cards) in Texas hold ’em.
  14. A deed done to another; an act of kindness or malice.
  15. A single loop of a coil.
  16. (rope) A pass behind or through an object.
  17. Character; personality; nature.
  18. (soccer) An instance of going past an opposition player with the ball in one’s control.
  19. (circus, theater, especially physical comedy) A short skit, act, or routine.
    • 1960, Theatre Notebook (volumes 14-16, page 122)
      Between the pieces were individual turns, comic songs and dances.
  20. (printing, dated) A type turned upside down to serve for another character that is not available.
  21. (Britain, finance, historical) The profit made by a stockjobber, being the difference between the buying and selling prices.
    • 1977, Michael Arthur Firth, Valuation of Shares and the Efficient-markets Theory (page 11)
      There are usually at least two jobbers who specialise in the leading stocks, and this acts to keep the jobber’s turn to a reasonable amount []
Synonyms
  • (change of direction or orientation):
  • (movement about an axis returning to the original orientation): 360° turn, complete rotation, complete turn, full rotation, full turn
  • (single loop of a coil): loop
  • (chance to use (something) shared in sequence with others): go
  • (one’s chance to make a move in a game): go, move
  • (figure in music):
  • (time required to complete a project):
  • (fit or period of giddiness): dizziness, dizzy spell, giddiness
  • (change in temperament or circumstance): change, swing
  • (sideways movement of a cricket ball):
Derived terms
  • See also turning
  • Descendants
    • Japanese: ターン (tān)
    Translations

    Derived terms

    See also

    • Appendix:Parts of the knot
    • ornament
    • trill

    Anagrams

    • runt

    Finnish

    Etymology

    < English turn

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /ˈtøːn/, [ˈt̪ø̞ːn]

    Noun

    turn

    1. (poker) turn (fourth communal card in Texas hold’em)

    Declension

    Synonyms

    • neljäs avokortti

    Icelandic

    Etymology

    From Latin turris (tower). Cognate with Danish tårn and German Turm. First appears in the 12th or 13th century.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /tʰʏrtn/
    • Rhymes: -ʏrtn

    Noun

    turn m (genitive singular turns, nominative plural turnar)

    1. tower

    Declension


    Norwegian Bokmål

    Etymology

    From the verb turne; compare with German Turnen.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /tʉːɳ/
    • Rhymes: -ʉːɳ

    Noun

    turn m (indeclinable) (uncountable)

    1. gymnastics (athletic discipline)

    Related terms

    • gymnastikk
    • turner

    References

    • “turn” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

    Norwegian Nynorsk

    Etymology

    From the verb turne

    Noun

    turn m (uncountable)

    1. gymnastics (athletic discipline)

    Related terms

    • gymnastikk

    References

    • “turn” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

    Romanian

    Etymology

    Borrowed from German Turm, from Latin turrem, accusative form of turris.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /turn/

    Noun

    turn n (plural turnuri)

    1. tower
    2. (chess) rook

    Declension

    Synonyms

    • (chess rook): tură

    See also

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