Bitter vs Sour what difference

what is difference between Bitter and Sour

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈbɪtə/, [ˈbɪtʰə], (colloquially also) [ˈbɪʔə]
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈbɪtəɹ/, [ˈbɪɾɚ]
  • Hyphenation: bit‧ter
  • Rhymes: -ɪtə(r)
  • Homophone: bidder (in some dialects)

Etymology 1

From Middle English bitter, bittre, from Old English bitter, biter (bitter), from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz (bitter), equivalent to bite +‎ -er (adjectival suffix). Compare Saterland Frisian bitter (bitter), West Frisian bitter (bitter), Dutch bitter (bitter), Low German bitter (bitter), German bitter (bitter), Swedish bitter (bitter), Icelandic bitur (bitter).

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer or more bitter, superlative bitterest or most bitter)

  1. Having an acrid taste (usually from a basic substance).
    • Long after his cigar burnt bitter, he sat with eyes fixed on the blaze. When the flames at last began to flicker and subside, his lids fluttered, then drooped; but he had lost all reckoning of time when he opened them again to find Miss Erroll in furs and ball-gown kneeling on the hearth [].
    • 2018 May 16, Adam Rogers, Wired, “The Fundamental Nihilism of Yanny vs. Laurel”:
      A few types of molecules get sensed by receptors on the tongue. Protons coming off of acids ping receptors for “sour.” Sugars get received as “sweet.” Bitter, salty, and the proteinaceous flavor umami all set off their own neural cascades.
  2. Harsh, piercing or stinging.
    • 1999, Neil Gaiman, Stardust, p.31 (Perennial paperback edition)
      It was at the end of February, [] when the world was cold, and a bitter wind howled down the moors [].
  3. Hateful or hostile.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
      He inveighed against the folly of making oneself liable for the debts of others; vented many bitter execrations against the brother; and concluded with wishing something could be done for the unfortunate family.
  4. Cynical and resentful.
Usage notes
  • The one-word comparative form bitterer and superlative form bitterest exist, but are less common than their two-word counterparts more bitter and most bitter.
Synonyms
  • (cynical and resentful): jaded
Antonyms
  • (cynical and resentful): optimistic
Derived terms
  • bitter pill to swallow
  • bittersome
Descendants
  • Sranan Tongo: bita
Translations
See also
  • bitter end

Noun

bitter (countable and uncountable, plural bitters)

  1. (usually in the plural bitters) A liquid or powder, made from bitter herbs, used in mixed drinks or as a tonic.
    • 1773, Oliver Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer
      Thus I begin: “All is not gold that glitters,
      “Pleasure seems sweet, but proves a glass of bitters.
  2. A type of beer heavily flavored with hops.
  3. (nautical) A turn of a cable about the bitts.
Synonyms
  • (beer): English pale ale, EPA
Derived terms
  • brought up to a bitter
Translations

Verb

bitter (third-person singular simple present bitters, present participle bittering, simple past and past participle bittered)

  1. To make bitter.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Wolcott to this entry?)

Etymology 2

bit +‎ -er

Noun

bitter (plural bitters)

  1. (computing, informal, in combination) A hardware system whose architecture is based around units of the specified number of bits (binary digits).
    • 1983, Computerworld (volume 17, number 49, page 21)
      However, 16-bitters are far more expensive than the 8-bit variety. And, unfortunately, have only a handful of business applications software packages that really take advantage of them.
    • 1984, Electronic Business (volume 10, page 154)
      The company believes that the 32-bit market will almost equal that of 16-bitters by the end of the decade. Chip maker Zilog Inc., not a major player in the 16-bit arena, is even more bullish about 32-bitters as it readies its own version for market.

Danish

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Middle Low German bitter.

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (all meanings)
Inflection
Related terms
  • bitterhed
  • forbitret

Noun

bitter c (singular definite bitteren, plural indefinite bittere)

  1. bitter (the liquid used in drinks)
  2. A bitter form of an aquavit
Inflection

Etymology 2

Borrowed from English bitter.

Noun

bitter c

  1. bitter (type of beer – only known generally in Denmark for a few years)

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch bitter, from Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪtər/
  • Hyphenation: bit‧ter
  • Rhymes: -ɪtər

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterder, superlative bitterst)

  1. bitter (having an acrid taste)
  2. bitter, embittered

Inflection

Derived terms

  • verbitteren

Related terms

  • verbitterd

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: bitter

See also

  • (tastes) smaak; bitter, zoet, zout, zuur (Category: nl:Taste)

Noun

bitter m or n (plural bitters, diminutive bittertje n)

  1. A type of strong spirits made by steeping (often bitter) herbs in brandy or jenever, traditionally considered a digestive drink.

Usage notes

When used in a countable sense (a serving of bitter), the diminutive is the usual form.

Derived terms

  • bitterbal
  • oranjebitter
  • kruidenbitter

Synonyms

  • kruidenbitter

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: bitter
  • Sranan Tongo: bita

Further reading

  • The article Bitters on Wikipedia

Finnish

Noun

bitter

  1. bitter (type of beer)

Declension


French

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bi.te/

Verb

bitter

  1. (transitive, slang) to understand, usually used in negative form and especially with rien.

Conjugation

Synonyms

  • comprendre

German

Etymology

From Middle High German bitter, pitter, from Old High German bittar, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz. Compare Low German bitter, Dutch bitter, English bitter, Swedish bitter, Icelandic bitur.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪ.tɐ/

Adjective

bitter (comparative bitterer, superlative am bittersten)

  1. bitter

(tastes) Geschmack; bitter, salzig, sauer, süß (Category: de:Taste)

Declension

Derived terms

  • bitterkalt
  • bittersüß
  • Bitterkeit
  • verbittern

Adverb

bitter

  1. bitterly

Synonyms

  • verbittert

Further reading

  • “bitter” in Duden online
  • “bitter” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • “bitter” in Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, 16 vols., Leipzig 1854–1961.

Italian

Etymology

From English bitters

Noun

bitter m (invariable)

  1. bitters

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch bitter, from Proto-West Germanic *bit(t)r, from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪtːər/

Adjective

bitter

  1. bitter (taste)
  2. sad, painful

Inflection

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants

  • Dutch: bitter
  • Limburgish: bitter

Further reading

  • “bitter”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929) , “bitter”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrere, indefinite superlative bitrest, definite superlative bitreste)

  1. bitter

Derived terms

  • bitterhet

References

  • “bitter” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Middle Low German bitter and Old Norse bitr

Adjective

bitter (neuter singular bittert, definite singular and plural bitre, comparative bitrare, indefinite superlative bitrast, definite superlative bitraste)

  1. bitter

References

  • “bitter” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbit.ter/

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of biter

Declension


Old High German

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbit.ter/

Adjective

bitter

  1. Alternative form of bittar

References

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse bitr (partly through the influence of Middle Low German bitter), from Proto-Germanic *bitraz.

Pronunciation

Adjective

bitter (comparative bittrare, superlative bittrast)

  1. bitter; having an acrid taste
  2. bitter; hateful
  3. bitter; resentful

Declension

Anagrams

  • bittre


English

Alternative forms

  • sower, sowre (obsolete)

Etymology

From Middle English sour, from Old English sūr (sour), from Proto-West Germanic *sūr, from Proto-Germanic *sūraz (sour), from Proto-Indo-European *súHros (sour). Cognate with West Frisian soer, Dutch zuur (sour), Low German suur, German sauer (sour), Danish, Swedish and Norwegian sur, French sur (sour), Faroese súrur (sour), Icelandic súr (sour, bitter).

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈsaʊ(ə)ɹ/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈsaʊə/
  • Rhymes: -aʊə(ɹ)
  • Rhymes: -aʊ.ə(ɹ)

Adjective

sour (comparative sourer, superlative sourest)

  1. Having an acidic, sharp or tangy taste.
    • 2018 May 16, Adam Rogers, Wired, “The Fundamental Nihilism of Yanny vs. Laurel”:
      A few types of molecules get sensed by receptors on the tongue. Protons coming off of acids ping receptors for “sour.” Sugars get received as “sweet.” Bitter, salty, and the proteinaceous flavor umami all set off their own neural cascades.
  2. Made rancid by fermentation, etc.
  3. Tasting or smelling rancid.
  4. (of a person’s character) Peevish or bad-tempered.
  5. (of soil) Excessively acidic and thus infertile.
  6. (of petroleum) Containing excess sulfur.
  7. Unfortunate or unfavorable.
  8. (music) Off-pitch, out of tune.

Antonyms

  • (petroleum): sweet

Derived terms

  • go sour
  • sourly
  • sourness

Translations

Noun

sour (countable and uncountable, plural sours)

  1. The sensation of a sour taste.
    (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. A drink made with whiskey, lemon or lime juice and sugar.
    (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. (by extension) Any cocktail containing lemon or lime juice.
  4. A sour or acid substance; whatever produces a painful effect.
  5. The acidic solution used in souring fabric.

Derived terms

  • laundry sour

Translations

Verb

sour (third-person singular simple present sours, present participle souring, simple past and past participle soured)

  1. (transitive) To make sour.
  2. (intransitive) To become sour.
    • 1720, Jonathan Swift, To Stella, on transcribing my Poems
      So the sun’s heat, with different powers, / Ripens the grape, the liquor sours.
  3. (transitive) To spoil or mar; to make disenchanted.
    • He was prudent and industrious, and so good a husbandman, that he might have led a very easy and comfortable life, had not an arrant vixen of a wife soured his domestic quiet.
  4. (intransitive) To become disenchanted.
  5. (transitive) To make (soil) cold and unproductive.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Mortimer to this entry?)
  6. To macerate (lime) and render it fit for plaster or mortar.
  7. (transitive) To process (fabric) after bleaching, using hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid to wash out the lime.

Derived terms

  • besour
  • unsour

Translations

Anagrams

  • Ruso, ours

French

Adjective

sour (feminine singular soure, masculine plural sours, feminine plural soures)

  1. (nonstandard) Alternative form of sûr

Preposition

sour

  1. (nonstandard) Alternative form of sur

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English sūr

Alternative forms

  • sower, soure, sowre

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /suːr/

Adjective

sour

  1. sour, acidic, bitter
  2. foul-smelling, rancid
  3. fermented, curdled
  4. unpleasant, unattractive
Descendants
  • English: sour
  • Scots: sour

Etymology 2

From Old French essorer.

Verb

sour

  1. Alternative form of soren (to soar)

Romansch

Alternative forms

  • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran) sora

Etymology

From Latin soror, from Proto-Indo-European *swésōr.

Noun

sour f (plural sours)

  1. (Puter, Vallader) sister

Coordinate terms

  • (in terms of gender):
    • (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Vallader) frar
    • (Puter) frer

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