bitterness vs gall what difference

what is difference between bitterness and gall

English

Etymology

From Middle English bitternesse, biternesse, from Old English biternes (bitterness; grief), equivalent to bitter +‎ -ness.

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈbɪtənəs/

Noun

bitterness (countable and uncountable, plural bitternesses)

  1. The quality of having a bitter taste.
  2. The quality of feeling bitter; acrimony, resentment; the quality of exhibiting such feelings.
    She kept her bitterness about her mistreatment for the rest of her life.
    the bitterness of his words
  3. The quality of eliciting a bitter feeling; humiliating, harsh.
    Nothing could assuage the bitterness of their defeat.
  4. Harsh cold.
    The bitterness of the winter caught us all by surprise.

Synonyms

  • (quality of being bitter in taste): acerbicness, acridity, acridness
  • (quality of feeling bitter): acrimony, gall, rancor/rancour, resentment

Translations



English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡɔːl/
  • (cot-caught merger) IPA(key): /ɡɑl/
  • Rhymes: -ɔːl
  • Homophone: Gaul

Etymology 1

From Middle English galle, from Old English galla, ġealla, from Proto-Germanic *gallǭ. Related to Dutch gal, German Galle, Swedish galle, galla, Ancient Greek χολή (kholḗ). Also remotely related with yellow.

Noun

gall (countable and uncountable, plural galls)

  1. (anatomy, obsolete, uncountable) Bile, especially that of an animal; the greenish, profoundly bitter-tasting fluid found in bile ducts and gall bladders, structures associated with the liver.
  2. (anatomy) The gall bladder.
    • He shall flee from the iron weapon and the bow of steel shall strike him through. It is drawn and cometh out of the body; yea, the glittering sword cometh out of his gall.
  3. (uncountable, obsolete) Great misery or physical suffering, likened to the bitterest-tasting of substances.
    • Lest there should be among you man, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart turneth away this day from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of these nations; lest there should be among you a root that beareth gall and wormwood;
    • 1683, John Dryden, The Art of Poetry
      The stage its ancient fury thus let fall, / And comedy diverted without gall.
    • 1847, Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights, chapter XIV:
      {…} I hated him with a hatred that turned my life to gall {…}
  4. (uncountable) A feeling of exasperation.
    • 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Chapter V
      It moves my gall to hear a preacher descanting on dress and needle-work; and still more, to hear him address the British fair, the fairest of the fair, as if they had only feelings.
  5. (uncountable) Impudence or brazenness; temerity, chutzpah.
    • 1917, Edgar Rice Burroughs, The Oakdale Affair, Chapter 6
      “Durn ye!” he cried. “I’ll lam ye! Get offen here. I knows ye. Yer one o’ that gang o’ bums that come here last night, an’ now you got the gall to come back beggin’ for food, eh? I’ll lam ye!” and he raised the gun to his shoulder.
  6. (medicine, obsolete, countable) A sore or open wound caused by chafing, which may become infected, as with a blister.
    • 1892, Walt Whitman, “Song of Myself”, Leaves of Grass
      And remember perfectly well his revolving eyes and his awkwardness, / And remember putting plasters on the galls of his neck and ankles;
  7. (countable) A sore on a horse caused by an ill-fitted or ill-adjusted saddle; a saddle sore.
    • 1989 National Ag Safety Database (Centers for Disease Control)
      Riding a horse with bruised or broken skin can cause a gall, which frequently results in the white saddle marks seen on the withers and backs of some horses.
  8. (countable) A pit on a surface being cut caused by the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
Derived terms
  • gallbladder
  • gallstone
Translations

Verb

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. (transitive) To bother or trouble.
  2. To harass, to harry, often with the intent to cause injury.
    • June 24, 1778, George Washington, The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources: Volume 12, 1745–1799
      The disposition for these detachments is as follows – Morgans corps, to gain the enemy’s right flank; Maxwells brigade to hang on their left. Brigadier Genl. Scott is now marching with a very respectable detachment destined to gall the enemys left flank and rear.
  3. To chafe, to rub or subject to friction; to create a sore on the skin.
    • …he went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at length very well.
  4. To exasperate.
    • 1979, Mark Bowden, “Captivity Pageant”, The Atlantic, Volume 296, No. 5, pp. 92-97, December, 1979
      Metrinko was hungry, but he was galled by how self-congratulatory his captors seemed, how generous and noble and proudly Islamic.
  5. To cause pitting on a surface being cut from the friction between the two surfaces exceeding the bond of the material at a point.
  6. To scoff; to jeer.
Translations

Etymology 2

Borrowed from French galle, from Latin galla (oak-apple).

Noun

gall (plural galls)

  1. (countable, phytopathology) A blister or tumor-like growth found on the surface of plants, caused by burrowing of insect larvae into the living tissues, especially that of the common oak gall wasp Cynips quercusfolii.
    • 1974, Philip P. Wiener (ed.), Dictionary of the History of Ideas
      Even so, Redi retained a belief that in certain other cases—the origin of parasites inside the human or animal body or of grubs inside of oak galls—there must be spontaneous generation. Bit by bit the evidence grew against such views. In 1670 Jan Swammerdam, painstaking student of the insect’s life cycle, suggested that the grubs in galls were enclosed in them for the sake of nourishment and must come from insects that had inserted their semen or their eggs into the plants.
  2. (Can we clean up(+) this sense?) (countable) A bump-like imperfection resembling a gall.
    • 1653, Izaak Walton, The Compleat Angler, Chapter 21
      But first for your Line. First note, that you are to take care that your hair be round and clear, and free from galls, or scabs, or frets: for a well- chosen, even, clear, round hair, of a kind of glass-colour, will prove as strong as three uneven scabby hairs that are ill-chosen, and full of galls or unevenness. You shall seldom find a black hair but it is round, but many white are flat and uneven; therefore, if you get a lock of right, round, clear, glass-colour hair, make much of it.
Synonyms
  • nutgall
Derived terms
Translations

Verb

gall (third-person singular simple present galls, present participle galling, simple past and past participle galled)

  1. To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts in dyeing.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Ure to this entry?)

See also

Gall (disambiguation) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia


Catalan

Etymology

From Old Occitan [Term?] (compare Occitan gal), from Latin gallus (compare Spanish gallo, Portuguese galo).

Pronunciation

  • (Balearic, Central, Valencian) IPA(key): /ˈɡaʎ/
  • Rhymes: -aʎ

Noun

gall m (plural galls)

  1. rooster, cock

Derived terms

See also

  • gallina

Further reading

  • “gall” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.

Hungarian

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: gall
  • Rhymes: -ɒlː

Adjective

gall (not comparable)

  1. Gallic (of or pertaining to Gaul, its people or language)

Declension

Noun

gall (countable and uncountable, plural gallok)

  1. Gaul (person)
  2. Gaul (language)

Declension

Related terms

  • Gallia

Further reading

  • gall in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Icelandic

Verb

gall (strong)

  1. first-person singular past indicative of gjalla
  2. third-person singular past indicative of gjalla

Irish

Pronunciation

  • (Cois Fharraige) IPA(key): /ɡɑːl̪ˠ/

Etymology 1

From Old Irish gall (foreigner), from Latin Gallus (a Gaul). Related to Scottish Gaelic Gall (foreigner).

Noun

gall m (genitive singular gaill, nominative plural gaill)

  1. foreigner
  2. (derogatory) Anglified Irish person
Derived terms
  • camán gall (chervil)
Related terms
  • Gall

Etymology 2

Noun

gall m (genitive singular gaill, nominative plural gaill)

  1. Alternative form of gallán

Declension

Mutation

Further reading

  • “gall” in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “gall” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “gall” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Scottish Gaelic

Noun

gall m (genitive singular goill, plural goill)

  1. Alternative letter-case form of Gall

Welsh

Alternative forms

  • geill (literary, third-person singular present/future)

Pronunciation

  • (North Wales) IPA(key): /ɡaɬ/
  • (South Wales) IPA(key): /ɡaːɬ/, /ɡaɬ/

Verb

gall

  1. third-person singular present/future of gallu
  2. (literary, rare) second-person singular imperative of gallu

Mutation

References


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