bivouac vs camp what difference

what is difference between bivouac and camp

English

Alternative forms

  • bivouack
  • biouac, biovac, bihovac (obsolete)
  • bivy, bivvy (shortening)

Etymology

Borrowed from French bivouac (earlier biouac, bivac), from Alemannic German Biiwacht (reinforcements of guard or town watch), from bii- + Wacht (watch, guard).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɪv.u.æk/, /ˈbɪv.wæk/
  • Rhymes: -æk

Noun

bivouac (plural bivouacs)

  1. An encampment for the night, usually without tents or covering.
  2. Any temporary encampment.
  3. A temporary shelter constructed generally for a few nights.
    • 2005, Boston Globe, September 23, 2005
      The outing begins by Thursday noon, when the recreational vehicles start rumbling into town and their owners set up bivouacs.
  4. (dated) The watch of a whole army by night, when in danger of surprise or attack.
  5. (zoology) A structure formed by migratory ants out of their own bodies to protect the queen and larvae.

Translations

Verb

bivouac (third-person singular simple present bivouacs or bivouacks, present participle bivouacing or bivouacking, simple past and past participle bivouacked)

  1. To set up camp.
    We’ll bivouac here tonight.
  2. To watch at night or be on guard, as a whole army.
  3. To encamp for the night without tents or covering.

Translations


French

Alternative forms

  • bivac, bivoie, biouac

Etymology

From earlier bivoie, biouac, bivac, from Alemannic German Biiwacht (a patrol of citizens added – in time of alarm or commotion – to the regular town watch), from bii- (by-) + Wacht (watch, guard).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bi.vwak/

Noun

bivouac m (plural bivouacs)

  1. bivouac (encampment for the night)

Derived terms

  • bivouaquer

Descendants

  • Bulgarian: бивак (bivak)
  • Czech: bivak
  • Danish: bivuak
  • Dutch: bivak
  • English: bivouac, bivouack
  • German: Biwak
  • Galician: bivaque
  • Hungarian: bivak
  • Italian: bivacco
  • Japanese: ビバーク (bibāku)
  • Macedonian: бивак (bivak)
  • Polish: biwak
  • Portuguese: bivaque
  • Russian: бивак (bivak), бивуак (bivuak)
  • Slovak: bivak
  • Slovene: bivak
  • Spanish: vivac, vivaque
  • Swedish: bivack

Further reading

  • “bivouac” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).


English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kæmp/
    • (General American, Canada, /æ/ raising) IPA(key): [kʰɛəmp] ~ [kʰeəmp]
  • Rhymes: -æmp

Etymology 1

From Middle English kampe (battlefield, open space), from Old English camp (battle, contest, battlefield, open space), from Proto-West Germanic *kamp (open field where military exercises are held, level plain), from Latin campus (open field, level plain), from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂emp- (to bend; crooked). Reinforced circa 1520 by Middle French can, camp (place where an army lodges temporarily), from Old Northern French camp, from the same Latin (whence also French champ from Old French). Cognate with Old High German champf (battle, struggle) (German Kampf), Old Norse kapp (battle), Old High German hamf (paralysed, maimed, mutilated). Doublet of campus.

The verb is from Middle English campen, from Old English campian, compian (to fight, war against), from Proto-West Germanic *kampōn (to fight, do battle), from *kamp (field, battlefield, battle), see above. Cognate with Dutch kampen, German kämpfen (to struggle), Danish kæmpe, Swedish kämpa.

Noun

camp (countable and uncountable, plural camps)

  1. An outdoor place acting as temporary accommodation in tents or other temporary structures.
  2. An organised event, often taking place in tents or temporary accommodation.
  3. A base of a military group, not necessarily temporary.
  4. A single hut or shelter.
  5. The company or body of persons encamped.
  6. A group of people with the same strong ideals or political leanings.
  7. (uncommon) Campus
  8. (informal) A summer camp.
  9. (prison slang) A prison.
    • 2009, Nick Chandler, Jeanette Billings, Determined to Change: The Autobiography of Nick Chandler (page 184)
      Lantana is a sweet camp. It’s an old hospital that has been converted to a drug treatment center for prisoners.
  10. (agriculture) A mound of earth in which potatoes and other vegetables are stored for protection against frost
    Synonyms: burrow, pie
  11. (obsolete) Conflict; battle.
  12. (Britain, obsolete) An ancient game of football, played in some parts of England.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Halliwell to this entry?)
Derived terms
Related terms
  • campus
  • champerty
Descendants
Translations

Verb

camp (third-person singular simple present camps, present participle camping, simple past and past participle camped)

  1. To live in a tent or similar temporary accommodation.
  2. To set up a camp.
  3. (transitive) To afford rest or lodging for.
  4. (video games) To stay in an advantageous location in a video game, such as next to a power-up’s spawning point or in order to guard an area.
  5. (intransitive, obsolete) To fight; contend in battle or in any kind of contest; to strive with others in doing anything; compete.
    • 1562, Leigh, The Accedens of Armory ː
      Aristotle affirmeth that Rauens will gather together on sides, and campe and fight for victorie.
  6. (intransitive, obsolete) To wrangle; argue.
Derived terms
  • cample
Translations

Etymology 2

Unknown. Suggested origins include the 17th century French word camper (to put oneself in a pose), an assumed dialectal English word *camp or *kemp (rough, uncouth) and a derivation from camp (n.) Believed to be from Polari, otherwise obscure.

Noun

camp (uncountable)

  1. An affected, exaggerated or intentionally tasteless style.

Derived terms

Translations

Adjective

camp (comparative camper, superlative campest)

  1. Theatrical; making exaggerated gestures.
  2. (of a man) Ostentatiously effeminate.
    • 2007, David Rothwell, Dictionary of Homonyms, Wordsworth Editions →ISBN, page 88
      More recently the word has become colloquial English for either implying that someone is a homosexual (‘he’s very camp’), or for describing rather outre behaviour []
    • 2014, Sarah Lotz, The Three, Hachette UK →ISBN
      And to be honest, in the illustration Mr Tumnus does look as camp as fuck with his little scarf tied jauntily around his neck. I suppose it isn’t outside the realms of possibility that he’d just been off cottaging with some centaurs in the forest. God.
  3. Intentionally tasteless or vulgar, self-parodying.
    • 2002, Georges-Claude Guilbert, Madonna as Postmodern Myth, McFarland →ISBN, page 123
      In Saturday Night Live, Madonna also unsurprisingly played Princess Diana, Marilyn Monroe, and a Joan Collins clone, all in a very camp way. As John Dean writes: “U.S. rock has a ruling camp queen with Madonna.”
Translations

Derived terms

  • camp it up
  • campy

Descendants

  • Finnish: camp
  • French: camp
  • Spanish: camp

References

Anagrams

  • CAPM, CPAM

Catalan

Etymology

From Old Occitan camp (compare Occitan camp), from Latin campus (compare French champ, Spanish campo), from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂emp- (to bend, curve).

Pronunciation

  • (Balearic, Valencian) IPA(key): /ˈkamp/
  • (Central) IPA(key): /ˈkam/

Noun

camp m (plural camps)

  1. field (open area of land)
  2. camp (temporary outdoor accommodation)
  3. field of study, discipline
  4. (physics) field

Synonyms

  • (open area): terreny
  • (camp): campament
  • (discipline): disciplina

Derived terms

Related terms

  • campanya
  • campestre
  • campió

French

Etymology 1

Probably from a Norman or Picard word equivalent to French champ (itself inherited from Old French champ and Latin), from Old Northern French camp, from Latin campus, or alternatively from Occitan camp, Old Occitan camp, possibly Italian campo. Doublet of champ.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kɑ̃/
  • Homophones: Caen, quand, quant

Noun

camp m (plural camps)

  1. camp (An outdoor place acting as temporary accommodation in tents or other temporary structures.)
    Il a dressé son camp de l’autre côté de la rivière. ― He has erected his camp on the other side of the river.
  2. camp (Semi-temporary accommodation)
    Un camp de concentration. ― A concentration camp.
  3. camp (A base of a military group, not necessarily temporary)
    Les camps ennemis. ― The enemy camps.
  4. camp (A group of people with the same ideals or political leanings, strongly supported.)
    Ce pays est partagé en deux camps. ― This country is divided into two camps.
  5. camp, summer camp.
    Un camp de vacances. ― A summer camp. (idiomatic; French usage does not specify a season)
Derived terms
Related terms
  • camper
  • campement
  • camping
  • champ

Etymology 2

Borrowed from English camp.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kɑ̃p/, /kamp/

Adjective

camp (invariable)

  1. camp (Intentionally tasteless or vulgar, self-parodying, affected, exaggerated)
    Une folle camp ne peut jamais en faire trop.

Noun

camp m (uncountable)

  1. campness; An affected, exaggerated or intentionally tasteless style.
    La tactique des Sœurs dans la lutte contre le sida repose sur une stratégie politique : une utilisation du camp, une réappropriation revendiquée de l’efféminement, de la visibilité homosexuelle et de la follitude qui visent à désarmer les injonctions morales pesant sur la sexualité – sociales, religieuses, liées au sexe, au genre, aux pratiques sexuelles…
Synonyms
  • follitude

Further reading

  • “camp” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English campian.

Verb

camp

  1. Alternative form of campen

Etymology 2

From Old Norse kampr.

Adjective

camp

  1. Alternative form of kempe (shaggy)

Norman

Alternative forms

  • champ

Etymology

From Old Northern French camp (compare Old French champ), from Latin campus, from Proto-Indo-European *kamp- (to bend; crooked). Compare French champ.

Noun

camp m (plural camps)

  1. (Guernsey) field

Old English

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *kamp, from Latin campus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kɑmp/

Noun

camp m

  1. combat

Declension

Derived terms

  • campdōm
  • campealdor
  • campġefēra
  • camphād
  • camplīċ
  • camprǣden
  • campstede
  • campung
  • campwǣpen
  • campwudu
  • campwered

Noun

camp n

  1. an enclosed piece of land

Descendants

  • Middle English: kampe, komp, comp
    • English: camp (see there for further descendants)
    • Scots: camp

Old French

Etymology

Found in Old Northern French, Picard and Norman dialects, etc. From Latin campus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈkãmp]

Noun

camp m (oblique plural cans, nominative singular cans, nominative plural camp)

  1. camp.
  2. Alternative form of champ

Descendants

  • Norman: camp (Guernsey)
  • French: camp
  • Dutch: kamp
    • Afrikaans: kamp
    • Indonesian: kamp
    • Petjo: kamp

Welsh

Etymology

From Middle Welsh camp, from Proto-Brythonic *kamp, from Latin campus, from the senses of “field of action, scope, opportunity, or produce of a field”.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kamp/

Noun

camp f (plural campau)

  1. feat, accomplishment
    Synonym: gorchest
  2. sport, contest

Derived terms

  • campfa (gymnasium, stadium)
  • campus (excellent, splendid)
  • campwaith (masterpiece)
  • campwr (champion)

Mutation

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