boy vs son what difference

what is difference between boy and son

English

Etymology

From Middle English boy, boye (servant, commoner, knave, boy), from Old English *bōia (boy), from Proto-Germanic *bōjô (younger brother, young male relation), from Proto-Germanic *bō- (brother, close male relation), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰā-, *bʰāt- (father, elder brother, brother). Cognate with Scots boy (boy), West Frisian boai (boy), Middle Dutch boi, booi (boy), Low German Boi (boy), and probably to the Old English proper name Bōia. Also related to West Flemish boe (brother), Norwegian dialectal boa (brother), Dutch boef (rogue, knave), German Bube (“boy; knave; jack”; > English bub), Icelandic bófi (rogue, crook, bandit, knave). See also bully.

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation, General American) enPR: boi, IPA(key): /bɔɪ/
  • (Southern American English) IPA(key): /bɔːə/
  • Rhymes: -ɔɪ

Noun

boy (countable and uncountable, plural boys)

  1. A young male. [from 15th c.]
    • 1440, Promptorium Parvulorum, 35:
      Bye or boye: Bostio.
    • 1535, Bible (Coverdale), Zechariah, Chapter VIII, Verse 5:
      The stretes of the citie shalbe full of yonge boyes and damselles…
    • 1711 March 7, Jonathan Swift, Journal, line 208:
      I find I was mistaken in the sex, ’tis a boy.
    • 1812, Lord Byron, Childe Harold, Canto II, xxiii, 72:
      Ah! happy years! once more who would not be a boy?
    1. (particularly) A male child or teenager, as distinguished from infants or adults.
      • 1876, Frances Eliza Millett Notley, The Kiddle-a-Wink, “A Tale of Love”, page 169:
        “He is not quite a baby, Alfred,” said Ellen, “though he is only a big stupid boy. We have made him miserable enough. Let us leave him alone.”
  2. (diminutive) A male child: a son of any age.
  3. (endearing, diminutive) A male of any age, particularly one rather younger than the speaker. [from 17th c.]
  4. (obsolete) A male of low station, (especially as pejorative) a worthless male, a wretch; a mean and dishonest male, a knave. [14th-17th c.]
    • 1608, William Shakespeare, King Lear, Act I Scene 4:
      Dost thou call me fool, boy?
  5. (now rare and usually offensive outside some Commonwealth nations) A male servant, slave, assistant, or employee, [from 14th c.] particularly:
    • c. 1300, King Horn, line 1075:
      þe boye hit scholde abugge; Horn þreu him ouer þe brigge.
    • 1973, Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’s Rainbow, i, 37:
      ‘Why does he go out and pinch all his dogs in person? He’s an administrator, isn’t he? Wouldn’t he hire a boy or something?’
      ‘We call them “staff”,’ Roger replies.
    1. A younger such worker.
      • 1721, Penelope Aubin, The Life of Madam de Beaumount, ii, 36:
        I resolved to continue in the Cave, with my two Servants, my Maid, and a Boy, whom I had brought from France.
    2. (historical or offensive) A non-white male servant regardless of age, [from 17th c.] particularly as a form of address.
      • 1625, W. Hawkins in Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas his Pilgrimes, Vol. I, iii, vii, 211:
        My Boy Stephen Grauener.
      • 1834, Edward Markham, New Zealand or Recollections of It, 72:
        They picked out two of the strongest of the Boys (as they call the Men) about the place.
      • 1876, Ebenezer Thorne, The Queen of the Colonies, or, Queensland as I Knew It, 58:
        The blacks who work on a station or farm are always, like the blacks in the Southern States, called boys.
      • 1907 May 13, N.Y. Evening Post, 6:
        [In Shanghai,] The register clerk assigns you to a room, and instead of ‘Front!’ he shouts ‘Boy!’
      • 1960 February 5, Northern Territory News, 5/5:
        Aborigine Wally… described himself as ‘number one boy’ at the station.
    3. (obsolete) A male camp follower.
      • 1572, John Sadler translating Flavius Vegetius Renatus, Foure Bookes… Contayninge a Plaine Forme, and Perfect Knowledge of Martiall Policye…, iii, vii:
        If any water be rough and boysterous, or the chanell verye broade, it manye times drowneth the carriages and the boyes and nowe and then slouthfull and lyther souldiours.
      • 1600, William Shakespeare, The Cronicle History of Henry the Fift…, Act IV, Scene vii, 1:
        Godes plud kil the boyes and the lugyge,
        Tis the arrants peece of knauery…
  6. (now offensive) Any non-white male, regardless of age. [from 19th c.]
    • 1812, Anne Plumptre translating Hinrich Lichtenstein, Travels in Southern Africa, in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806, Vol. I, i, viii, 119:
      A Hottentot… expects to be called by his name if addressed by any one who knows it; and by those to whom it is not known he expects to be called Hottentot… or boy.
    • 1888, Louis Diston Powles, Land of Pink Pearl, or Recollections of Life in the Bahamas, 66:
      Every darky, however old, is a boy.
    • 1973 September 8, Black Panther, 7/2:
      [In Alabama,] Guards still use the term ‘boy’ to refer to Black prisoners.
    • 1979, Bert Newton and Mohammed Ali, The Logie Awards:
      BN: [repeating a catchphrase] I like the boy.
      MA: [to hostile audience] Hold it, hold it, hold it. Easy. Did you say ‘Roy’ or ‘boy’?
      BN: ‘I like the boy’. There’s nothing wrong with saying that… Hang on, hang on, hang on… I’ll change religion, I’ll do anything for ya, I don’t bloody care… What’s wrong with saying that? ‘I like the boy’?
      MA: Boy
      BN: I mean, I like the man. I’m sorry, Muhammad.
  7. A male animal, especially, in affectionate address, a male dog. [from 15th c.]
    C’mere, boy! Good boy! Who’s a good boy?
    Are you getting a boy cat or a girl cat?
  8. (historical, military) A former low rank of various armed services; a holder of this rank.
    • 1841 May 6, Times in London, 5/4:
      Wounded… 1 Boy, 1st class, severely.
    • 1963 April 30, Times in London, 16/2:
      He joined the Navy as a boy second class in 1898.
  9. (US, slang, uncountable) Heroin. [from 20th c.]
  10. (somewhat childish) A male (tree, gene, etc).
    • 1950, Pageant:
      Are there “boy” trees and “girl” trees? Yes. A number of species, among them the yew, holly and date-bearing palm, have their male and female flowers on different trees. The male holly, for instance, must be planted fairly close to the female …
    • 1970 [earlier 1963], Helen V. Wilson, Helen Van Pelt, Helen Van Pelt’s African Violets, Dutton Adult (→ISBN):
      Of the 100 percent total, 25 will have two girl genes, 50 will have one boy and one girl gene, and 25 will have two boy genes.

Synonyms

  • (young male): See Thesaurus:boy
  • (diminutive term of address to males): chap, guy, lad, mate
  • (son): See son
  • (male servant): manservant
  • (disreputable man): brat, knave, squirt
  • (heroin): See Thesaurus:heroin

Antonyms

  • (young male): See Thesaurus:girl

Derived terms

Alternative forms

  • boi

Descendants

Translations

Interjection

boy

  1. Exclamation of surprise, pleasure or longing.

Related terms

  • oh boy

Translations

Verb

boy (third-person singular simple present boys, present participle boying, simple past and past participle boyed)

  1. To use the word “boy” to refer to someone.
  2. (transitive) To act as a boy (in allusion to the former practice of boys acting women’s parts on the stage).

See also

  • girl, man (antonyms in some senses)
  • Appendix:English collective nouns

References

  • Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Massachusetts, G.&C. Merriam Co., 1967

Anagrams

  • BYO, Y. O. B., Y.O.B., YOB, YoB, byo, oby, yob

Azerbaijani

Etymology

From Proto-Turkic *bod (body, stature; self; kin, tribe, etc).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /boj/

Noun

boy (definite accusative boyu, plural boylar)

  1. height, stature

Declension

Derived terms

  • boylu
  • boya çatmaq

Cebuano

Etymology

From English boy.

Noun

boy

  1. houseboy, errand boy

Synonyms

  • (errand boy): houseboy, muchacho, mutsatso

Chibcha

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /βoi/, /βoɨ/

Noun

boy

  1. Alternative form of boi

References

  • Gómez Aldana D. F., Análisis morfológico del Vocabulario 158 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia. Grupo de Investigación Muysccubun. 2013.

Dutch

Etymology

Borrowed from English boy.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bɔi̯/
  • Hyphenation: boy
  • Rhymes: -ɔi̯

Noun

boy m (plural boys, diminutive boytje n)

  1. (historical, now offensive) a male domestic servant, especially one with a darker skin in a colony
  2. (informal) boy, young man

See also

  • guy

French

Etymology

Borrowed from English boy.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bɔj/

Noun

boy m (plural boys)

  1. (now historical, offensive) boy (non-white male servant)
    • 1930, André Malraux, La Voie royale:
      Claude allait l’ouvrir mais le ton sur lequel le délégué appelait son boy lui fit lever la tête : l’auto attendait, bleue sous l’ampoule de la porte; le boy, qui s’était écarté – en voyant arriver le délégué sans doute – se rapprochait, hésitant.

Further reading

  • “boy” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Hungarian

Etymology

Borrowed from English boy.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈboj]
  • Hyphenation: boy
  • Rhymes: -oj
  • Homophone: boly

Noun

boy (plural boyok)

  1. young male servant, low-position assistant
    1. bellboy (in a hotel)
      Synonym: londiner
    2. office boy, errand boy, deliveryman
      Synonyms: kifutófiú, kézbesítő
  2. (dated) a male ballet dancer

Declension

Derived terms

  • boyszolgálat

See also

  • görl

Further reading

  • boy in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (’A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2021)

Italian

Etymology

Borrowed from English boy.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɔj/

Noun

boy m (plural boys)

  1. a male ballet dancer
  2. a bellboy (in a hotel)

References

Further reading

  • boy in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana

Ladino

Etymology

Borrowed from Turkish boy (stature, size).

Noun

boy m (Latin spelling)

  1. size
  2. age

Portuguese

Etymology 1

Shortening of office boy, from English office boy.

Alternative forms

  • bói

Noun

boy m (plural boys)

  1. office boy
  2. (Brazil, slang) a young, upper-class male
Synonyms
  • (office boy): office boy
  • (rich young man): mauricinho

Etymology 2

Noun

boy m (plural boys)

  1. Obsolete spelling of boi

Spanish

Noun

boy m (plural boyes)

  1. male stripper

Sranan Tongo

Alternative forms

  • boi (official spelling)

Etymology

From English boy.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /boi̯/

Noun

boy

  1. (unofficial spelling) boy

Turkish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [boj]

Etymology 1

From Proto-Turkic *bod. See archaic bodur (stout, short).

Noun

boy (definite accusative boyu, plural boylar)

  1. stature
  2. size
Derived terms
  • boylu
  • boyluluk
  • boysuz
  • boysuzluk

Etymology 2

Noun

boy (definite accusative boyu, plural boylar)

  1. tribe, clan
Declension

Etymology 3

From Ottoman Turkish بوی(boy) constructed the same, from Proto-Oghuz, passed into it, Chagatai and Kipchak from Persian بوی(bōy, smell).

Noun

boy

  1. (only constructed with otu or tohumu) fenugreek
    Synonym: çemen

References

  • Clauson, Gerard (1972) An Etymological Dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 384b
  • Eren, Hasan (1999), “boy”, in Türk Dilinin Etimolojik Sözlüğü [Etymological Dictionary of the Turkish Language] (in Turkish), Ankara: Bizim Büro Basım Evi, page 59a

Westrobothnian

Alternative forms

  • bog

Etymology

From Old Norse bógr (shoulder), from Proto-Germanic *bōguz, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰāǵʰus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /buːy/

Noun

boy m (definite singular boyen)

  1. shoulder (of an animal)


English

Alternative forms

  • sonne (obsolete)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /sʌn/, /sɒn/
  • Rhymes: -ʌn, -ɒn
  • Homophone: sun

Etymology 1

From Middle English sonn, sone, sun, sune, from Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from Proto-Indo-European *sewH- (to bear; give birth).

Noun

son (plural sons)

  1. One’s male offspring.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:son
  2. A male adopted person in relation to his adoptive parents.
  3. A male person who has such a close relationship with an older or otherwise more authoritative person that he can be regarded as a son of the other person.
    (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. A male person considered to have been significantly shaped by some external influence.
  5. A male descendant.
  6. A familiar address to a male person from an older or otherwise more authoritative person.
  7. (Britain, colloquial) An informal address to a friend or person of equal authority.
Antonyms
  • (with regards to gender) daughter
  • (with regards to ancestry) father, mother, parent
Hypernyms
  • child
Derived terms
Translations

See son/translations § Noun.

Etymology 2

From Middle English sonen, sunen, from the noun (see above).

Verb

son (third-person singular simple present sons, present participle sonning, simple past and past participle sonned)

  1. (transitive) To produce (i.e. bear, father, beget) a son.
  2. (transitive) To address (someone) as “son”.

Etymology 3

From Spanish son (literally tone, sound).

Noun

son (uncountable)

  1. (music) Son cubano, a genre of music and dance blending Spanish and African elements that originated in Cuba during the late 19th century.

Further reading

  • son on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
  • son cubano on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Anagrams

  • NOS, NSO, Nos, Nos., ONS, nos, nos., ons

Afrikaans

Etymology

From Dutch zon, from Middle Dutch sonne, from Old Dutch sunna, from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /sɔn/

Proper noun

son

  1. Sun, sun (star of the solar system)

Derived terms

  • middernagson
  • sonbril
  • Sondag
  • sonneblom
  • sonnestelsel
  • sonnig
  • sonpaneel
  • sonskyn

Aromanian

Etymology

From Latin sonus. Compare Daco-Romanian sun.

Noun

son n (plural sonuri)

  1. sound

Related terms

  • asun

Asturian

Etymology

From Latin sunt.

Verb

son

  1. third-person plural present indicative of ser

Azerbaijani

Etymology

From Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end). Compare Turkish son below.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [son]

Noun

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
    Synonym: axır
    Antonym: baş

Declension

Derived terms

Adjective

son

  1. recent, latest
  2. last, final
    Synonym: axırıncı

References


Catalan

Etymology 1

From Old Occitan son, from Vulgar Latin *sum, reduced form of Latin suus, suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos. Compare Occitan and French son.

In unstressed position in Vulgar Latin suum, suam etc. were monosyllabic and regularly became son, sa etc. in Catalan. When stressed they were disyllabic and became seu, sua > seua etc.

Determiner

son m (feminine sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural ses)

  1. his, her, its
  2. their
  3. your (alluding to vostè or vostès)
Usage notes

The use of son and the other possessive determiners is mostly archaic in the majority of dialects, with articulated possessive pronouns (e.g. el meu) mostly being used in their stead. However, mon, ton, and son are still widely used before certain nouns referring to family members and some affective nouns, such as amic, casa, and vida. Which nouns actually find use with the possessive determiners depends greatly on the locale.

The standard masculine plural form is sos, but sons can be found in some dialects.

See also
  • seu
  • llur
  • vostre

Etymology 2

From Old Occitan, from Latin somnus, from Proto-Indo-European *swépnos.

Alternative forms

  • so (Balearic)

Pronunciation

  • (Balearic, Central, Valencian) IPA(key): /ˈsɔn/

Noun

son m (plural sons)

  1. sleep

Noun

son f (plural sons)

  1. sleepiness
    Synonym: somnolència
Derived terms
  • malson

Related terms

  • somni

Further reading

  • “son” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.

Danish

Verb

son

  1. imperative of sone

Faroese

Noun

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Finnish

Contraction

son

  1. (colloquial) Contraction of se on (it is).

French

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /sɔ̃/

Etymology 1

From Old French son, suen, suon, from Latin sonus (the current form may be remade after or influenced by sonner).

Noun

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound
Derived terms

Related terms

  • sonner
  • sonore

Etymology 2

From Middle French son, from Old French son, from Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of suus, suum, from Proto-Italic *sowos, from Proto-Indo-European *sewos, from *swé (self).

Determiner

son m (singular)

  1. (possessive) His, her, its (used to qualify masculine nouns and before a vowel).
Derived terms
  • sondit
Related terms
1 Also used before feminine adjectives and nouns beginning with a vowel or mute h.
2 Also used as the polite singular form.

Etymology 3

From Latin secundus (presumably through an earlier Old French form *seon; cf. an attested Medieval Latin seonno, seonnum). Cognate with Catalan segó, Old Occitan segon. The meaning derives from the fact that bran results from a second sifting of flour. Doublet of second, a borrowing.

Noun

son m (plural sons)

  1. bran

Anagrams

  • nos

Further reading

  • “son” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Galician

Etymology 1

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese sõo, son (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria, probably influenced by or possibly borrowed from Old Occitan son), from Latin sonus. Alternatively, regressively derived from the verb soar. Compare Portuguese som, Spanish son.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /s̺oŋ/

Noun

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound
    • 1370, R. Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana. A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 561:
      Et começou o torneo a creçer tãto, et a seer o acapelamento tã grande, et a uolta et os braados et os alaridos et os sõos dos cornos et das tronpas tã grandes et tã esquiuos que ome nõ se podía oýr

      And the tournament began to grow so much, and the carnage was so large, and the din and the roars and the yells and the sounds of the horns and of the trumpets so big and harsh that a man couldn’t heard himself
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 69:
      Et pasando porllos ditos, hu ha gran roido et gran soon se se o Cauallo espantar no no deuen ferir con açorregos, nen con vara, nen con espora, mais deuen no trager mansamente, con hũa cana afaagandoo et lleuandoo porllos ditos llugares a miude

      And passing by the mentioned places, where there is big noise and big sound, if the horse frightens, they should not wound him with whips nor with a stick, nor with spoor, rather they should bring him meekly, fondling him with a twig and taking him through this places often
Related terms
  • soar
  • sonoro

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /s̺oŋ/

Verb

son

  1. inflection of ser:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. third-person plural present indicative

References

  • “son” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI – ILGA 2006-2012.
  • “soon” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez – Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • “son” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI – ILGA 2006-2013.
  • “son” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • “son” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

German

Pronunciation

Pronoun

son

  1. Alternative form of so’n
    • 1857, Der Glücksstern. Novelle von Julie Burow (Frau Pfannenschmidt), Bromberg, page 95:
      „[…] Macht Platz Leute! en Wagen wär’ so übel nicht in soner Hitze.“

Further reading

  • “son” in Duden online

Icelandic

Noun

son

  1. indefinite accusative singular of sonur

Irish

Noun

son

  1. Only used in ar son

Istriot

Verb

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ièsi
  2. second-person singular present indicative of ièsi
    • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 29:
      Ti son la manduleîna inzucherada.

      You are the sugared almond.

Japanese

Romanization

son

  1. Rōmaji transcription of そん

Ladin

Etymology 1

Alternative forms

  • sun

Verb

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ester

Etymology 2

Alternative forms

  • sun
  • sion

Verb

son

  1. third-person singular present indicative of ester

Lower Sorbian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [sɔn]

Noun

son m

  1. (archaic) swan (waterfowl of genus Cygnus)

Declension

Synonyms

  • kołp
  • šwon

Manx

Alternative forms

  • er son

Preposition

son

  1. for
  2. by
  3. (used with verbal noun) want

Usage notes

Not used with pronouns. See er son for inflected forms.

Derived terms

  • cre hon (for what purpose?)
  • son shickyrys (for certain)

Middle English

Etymology 1

Noun

son

  1. Alternative form of sonne (sun)

Etymology 2

Noun

son

  1. Alternative form of sone (son)

Middle French

Etymology

From Old French son.

Noun

son m (plural sons)

  1. sound

Descendants

  • French: son

Northern Sami

Etymology

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection

See also

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[2], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús.

Noun

son m (definite singular sonen, indefinite plural søner, definite plural sønene)

  1. a son

Derived terms

  • steson

References

  • “son” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Occitan

Etymology 1

Determiner

son m sg (feminine singular sa, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sas)

  1. his; her; its
    Synonyms: seu, sieu

Etymology 2

Verb

son

  1. third-person plural present indicative of èsser

Old English

Etymology

From Latin sonus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /soːn/

Noun

sōn m

  1. a musical sound; vocal, instrumental

Derived terms

  • sōncræft

References

  • Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller (1898), “sōn”, in An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 2nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Old French

Alternative forms

  • soun (Anglo-Norman)
  • sun (Anglo-Norman)

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin sum, a reduced/atonic variant of Latin suum.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /sun/
  • Rhymes: -on

Determiner

son m (feminine sa, plural ses)

  1. his/hers/its (third-person singular possessive)

Descendants

  • Middle French: son
    • French: son

Old Frisian

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *sān (immediately). Cognates include Old English sōna, Old Saxon sān and Old Dutch *sān.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈsɔːn/

Adverb

sōn

  1. soon

References

  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009) An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISBN

Old Irish

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Latin sonus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /son/

Noun

son m

  1. sound
Inflection

Etymology 2

Pronoun

son

  1. Alternative spelling of són

Mutation

Further reading

  • Gregory Toner, Maire Ní Mhaonaigh, Sharon Arbuthnot, Dagmar Wodtko, Maire-Luise Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “son”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language

Old Swedish

Alternative forms

  • sun

Etymology

From Old Norse sonr, from Proto-Germanic *sunuz.

Noun

son m

  1. son

Declension

Descendants

  • Swedish: son

Scots

Etymology

From Old English sunu (son), from Proto-Germanic *sunuz (son), from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús (son), from *sewH- (to bear, give birth).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [sɪn]

Noun

son (plural sons)

  1. son, male child

Derived terms


Scottish Gaelic

Noun

son m (indeclinable)

  1. sake, account

Usage notes

Note that a grammaticalised unit meaning ‘for’ is formed by a prepositional phrase combining the preposition air / ar with a nominal or pronominal argument and son. (These structures are sometimes called ‘compound prepositions’.)

Derived terms

  • airson, carson

Skolt Sami

Etymology

From Proto-Samic *sonë.

Pronoun

son

  1. he, she, it

Inflection

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[3], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈson/, [ˈsõn]
  • Rhymes: -on

Etymology 1

From Latin sonus, probably through the intermediate of Old Occitan son (or influenced by it); alternatively, but less likely, regressively derived from the verb sonar (the more expected form is sueno that appeared in some Medieval texts). Compare English sound and Portuguese som.

Noun

son m (plural sones)

  1. tone (pleasant sound)
  2. (music, genre, uncountable) son (Afro-Cuban musical form)
    Synonym: son cubano
  3. (music) musical composition in this form
Derived terms
  • ¿a qué son?
  • ¿a son de qué?
  • bailar al son que le tocan
  • en son de
  • sin ton ni son
Related terms
  • sonar

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

son

  1. Second-person plural (ustedes) present indicative form of ser.
  2. Third-person plural (ellos, ellas, also used with ustedes?) present indicative form of ser.

Further reading

  • “son” in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014.
  • son on the Spanish Wikipedia.Wikipedia es
  • son cubano on the Spanish Wikipedia.Wikipedia es

References


Sranan Tongo

Etymology

From English Sun (from Middle English sunne, from Old English sunne (sun; the Sun)) or Dutch zon (from Middle Dutch sonne (sun), from Old Dutch sunna), both from Proto-Germanic *sunnǭ, from Proto-Indo-European *sh₂un-, *sóh₂wl̥.

Noun

son

  1. Sun

Derived terms

  • sonde

Swedish

Etymology 1

From Old Swedish son, sun, from Old Norse sonr, sunr from Proto-Germanic *sunuz, from Proto-Indo-European *suHnús. Masculine in Late Modern Swedish.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /soːn/
  • Rhymes: -oːn

Noun

son c

  1. son; someone’s male child
Declension
Antonyms
  • dotter
Related terms
  • -son (see there for more derivations)
  • brorson
  • dotterson
  • sonbarn
  • sondotter
  • sonhustru
  • sonlig
  • sonnamn
  • sonson
  • sonsonsson
  • styvson
  • svärson
  • systerson

References

  • son in Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL)

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun

son

  1. definite singular of so

Anagrams

  • nos, ons, sno

Turkish

Etymology

From Ottoman Turkish صوڭ‎(soŋ, end, consequence), from Proto-Turkic *soŋ (back, end, after).

Adjective

son

  1. last, final
    Antonym: ilk

Noun

son (definite accusative sonu, plural sonlar)

  1. end, ending
  2. consequence, result, conclusion

Declension

Related terms

  • sonra
  • sonlu
  • sonsuz
  • sonlanmak

Uzbek

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

son (plural sonlar)

  1. thigh

Venetian

Verb

son

  1. first-person singular present indicative of èser

Vietnamese

Pronunciation

  • (Hà Nội) IPA(key): [sɔn˧˧]
  • (Huế) IPA(key): [ʂɔŋ˧˧]
  • (Hồ Chí Minh City) IPA(key): [ʂɔŋ˧˧] ~ [sɔŋ˧˧]

Adjective

son

  1. (literary) unshakable; firm
    Lòng son dạ sắt càng thêm
    Lòng đà trăng gió ai tìm thấy ai.

Derived terms

  • son sắt; sắt son

Noun

son

  1. lipstick

Derived terms

  • son môi
  • đỏ son

Volapük

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [son]

Noun

son (nominative plural sons)

  1. son

Declension

Synonyms

  • hicil

Hypernyms

  • cil

Coordinate terms

  • daut
  • jicil

Derived terms

  • leson
  • lüson
  • posson
  • sonef
  • sonik
  • soniko
  • sono

See also

  • famül
  • fat
  • ledaut
  • mot
  • pal
  • palik
  • poscil
  • posdaut

Zhuang

Etymology

From Proto-Tai *soːlᴬ (to teach). Cognate with Thai สอน (sɔ̌ɔn), Northern Thai ᩈᩬᩁ, Lao ສອນ (sǭn), ᦉᦸᧃ (ṡoan), Tai Dam ꪎꪮꪙ, Shan သွၼ် (sǒan), Tai Nüa ᥔᥩᥢᥴ (sóan), Ahom ???????????????? (son).

Pronunciation

  • (Standard Zhuang) IPA(key): /θoːn˨˦/
  • Tone numbers: son1
  • Hyphenation: son

Verb

son (old orthography son)

  1. to teach

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