break vs damp what difference

what is difference between break and damp

English

Pronunciation

  • enPR: brāk, IPA(key): /bɹeɪk/, [bɹʷeɪ̯k]
  • Rhymes: -eɪk
  • Homophone: brake

Etymology 1

From Middle English breken, from Old English brecan (to break), from Proto-West Germanic *brekan, from Proto-Germanic *brekaną (to break), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (to break). The word is a doublet of bray.

Verb

break (third-person singular simple present breaks, present participle breaking, simple past broke or (archaic) brake, past participle broken or (colloquial) broke)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) To separate into two or more pieces, to fracture or crack, by a process that cannot easily be reversed for reassembly.
    1. (transitive, intransitive) To crack or fracture (bone) under a physical strain.
  2. (transitive) To divide (something, often money) into smaller units.
  3. (transitive) To cause (a person or animal) to lose spirit or will; to crush the spirits of.
    • 1613, William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, Henry VIII, Act IV, Sc. 2:
      An old man, broken with the storms of state,
      Is come to lay his weary bones among ye;
      Give him a little earth for charity
    1. To turn an animal into a beast of burden.
      • 2002, John Fusco, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron
        Colonel: See, gentlemen? Any horse could be broken.
  4. (intransitive) To be crushed, or overwhelmed with sorrow or grief.
  5. (transitive) To interrupt; to destroy the continuity of; to dissolve or terminate.
    1. (transitive, theater) To end the run of (a play).
      • 1958, Walter Macqueen-Pope, St. James’s: Theatre of Distinction (page 134)
        In July Alexander broke the run and went on tour, as was his custom. He believed in keeping in touch with provincial audiences and how wise he was!
      • 1986, Kurt Gänzl, The British Musical Theatre: 1865-1914 (page 610)
        After Camberwell he broke the play’s season and brought it back in the autumn with a few revisions and a noticeably strengthened cast but without any special success.
  6. (transitive) To ruin financially.
    • With arts like these rich Matho, when he speaks, / Attracts all fees, and little lawyers breaks.
  7. (transitive) To violate, to not adhere to.
  8. (intransitive, of a fever) To pass the most dangerous part of the illness; to go down, in terms of temperature.
    Susan’s fever broke at about 3 AM, and the doctor said the worst was over.
  9. (intransitive, of a spell of settled weather) To end.
  10. (intransitive, of a storm) To begin; to end.
  11. (intransitive, of morning, dawn, day etc.) To arrive.
  12. (transitive, gaming slang) To render (a game) unchallenging by altering its rules or exploiting loopholes or weaknesses in them in a way that gives a player an unfair advantage.
  13. (transitive, intransitive) To stop, or to cause to stop, functioning properly or altogether.
    1. (specifically, in programming) To cause (some feature of a program or piece of software) to stop functioning properly; to cause a regression.
  14. (transitive) To cause (a barrier) to no longer bar.
    1. (specifically) To cause the shell of (an egg) to crack, so that the inside (yolk) is accessible.
    2. (specifically) To open (a safe) without using the correct key, combination, or the like.
  15. (transitive) To destroy the arrangement of; to throw into disorder; to pierce.
  16. (intransitive, of a wave of water) To collapse into surf, after arriving in shallow water.
  17. (intransitive) To burst forth; to make its way; to come into view.
    • 1800, William Wordsworth, The Fountain
      And from the turf a fountain broke, / And gurgled at our feet.
  18. (intransitive) To interrupt or cease one’s work or occupation temporarily.
  19. (transitive) To interrupt (a fall) by inserting something so that the falling object does not (immediately) hit something else beneath.
  20. (transitive, ergative) To disclose or make known an item of news, etc.
  21. (intransitive, of a sound) To become audible suddenly.
    • c. 1843,, George Lippard, The Battle-Day of Germantown, reprinted in Washington and His Generals “1776”, page 45 [2]:
      Like the crash of thunderbolts[…], the sound of musquetry broke over the lawn, […].
  22. (transitive) To change a steady state abruptly.
  23. (copulative, informal) To suddenly become.
  24. (intransitive) Of a male voice, to become deeper at puberty.
  25. (intransitive) Of a voice, to alter in type due to emotion or strain: in men generally to go up, in women sometimes to go down; to crack.
  26. (transitive) To surpass or do better than (a specific number), to do better than (a record), setting a new record.
  27. (sports and games):
    1. (transitive, tennis) To win a game (against one’s opponent) as receiver.
    2. (intransitive, billiards, snooker, pool) To make the first shot; to scatter the balls from the initial neat arrangement.
    3. (transitive, backgammon) To remove one of the two men on (a point).
  28. (transitive, military, most often in the passive tense) To demote, to reduce the military rank of.
    • 1926, T.E. Lawrence, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, New York: Anchor (1991), p. 167:
      Sir Reginald Wingate, High Commissioner in Egypt, was happy for the success of the work he had advocated for years. I grudged him this happiness; for McMahon, who took the actual risk of starting it, had been broken just before prosperity began.
    • 1953 February 9, “Books: First Rulers of Asia”, in Time:
      And he played no favorites: when his son-in-law sacked a city he had been told to spare, Genghis broke him to private.
    • 1968, William Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, Back Bay (2003), →ISBN, page 215:
      One morning after the budget had failed to balance Finanzminister von Scholz picked up Der Reichsanzeiger and found he had been broken to sergeant.
    • 2006, Peter Collier, Medal of Honor: Portraits of Valor Beyond the Call of Duty, Second Edition, Artisan Books, →ISBN, page 42:
      Not long after this event, Clausen became involved in another disciplinary situation and was broken to private—the only one to win the Medal of Honor in Vietnam.
  29. (transitive) To end (a connection), to disconnect.
  30. (intransitive, of an emulsion) To demulsify.
  31. (intransitive, sports) To counter-attack.
  32. (transitive, obsolete) To lay open, as a purpose; to disclose, divulge, or communicate.
  33. (intransitive) To become weakened in constitution or faculties; to lose health or strength.
    • 1731, Jonathan Swift, Verses on His Own Death
      See how the dean begins to break; / Poor gentleman he droops apace.
  34. (intransitive, obsolete) To fail in business; to become bankrupt.
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, Of Riches
      He that puts all upon adventures doth oftentimes break, and come to poverty.
  35. (transitive) To destroy the strength, firmness, or consistency of.
  36. (transitive) To destroy the official character and standing of; to cashier; to dismiss.
    • January 11, 1711, Jonathan Swift, The Examiner No. 24
      when I see a great officer broke.
  37. (intransitive) To make an abrupt or sudden change; to change the gait.
  38. (intransitive, archaic) To fall out; to terminate friendship.
    • c. 1700 Jeremy Collier, On Friendship
      To break upon the score of danger or expense is to be mean and narrow-spirited.
  39. (computing) To terminate the execution of a program before normal completion.
  40. (programming) To suspend the execution of a program during debugging so that the state of the program can be investigated.
  41. (computing) To cause, or allow the occurrence of, a line break.
Conjugation
Quotations
  • For quotations using this term, see Citations:break.
Synonyms
  • (ergative: separate into two or more pieces): burst, bust, shatter, shear, smash, split
  • (ergative: crack (bone)): crack, fracture
  • (transitive: turn an animal into a beast of burden): break in, subject, tame
  • (transitive: do that which is forbidden by): contravene, go against, violate
  • (intransitive: stop functioning): break down, bust, fail, go down (of a computer or computer network)
Antonyms
  • (transitive: cause to end up in two or more pieces): assemble, fix, join, mend, put together, repair
  • (tennis, intransitive: break serve): hold
Hyponyms
Derived terms
Translations

Noun

break (plural breaks)

  1. An instance of breaking something into two or more pieces.
  2. A physical space that opens up in something or between two things.
  3. A rest or pause, usually from work.
  4. (Britain) a time for students to talk or play.
  5. A short holiday.
  6. A temporary split with a romantic partner.
  7. An interval or intermission between two parts of a performance, for example a theatre show, broadcast, or sports game.
  8. A significant change in circumstance, attitude, perception, or focus of attention.
  9. The beginning (of the morning).
  10. An act of escaping.
  11. (computing) The separation between lines, paragraphs or pages of a written text.
    • 2001, Nan Barber, ‎David Reynolds, Office 2001 for Macintosh: The Missing Manual (page 138)
      No matter how much text you add above the break, the text after the break will always appear at the top of a new page.
  12. (computing) A keystroke or other signal that causes a program to terminate or suspend execution.
  13. (programming) Short for breakpoint.
  14. (Britain, weather) A change, particularly the end of a spell of persistent good or bad weather.
  15. (sports and games):
    1. (tennis) A game won by the receiving player(s).
    2. (billiards, snooker, pool) The first shot in a game of billiards
    3. (snooker) The number of points scored by one player in one visit to the table
    4. (soccer) The counter-attack
    5. (surfing) A place where waves break (that is, where waves pitch or spill forward creating white water).
  16. (dated) A large four-wheeled carriage, having a straight body and calash top, with the driver’s seat in front and the footman’s behind.
  17. (equitation) A sharp bit or snaffle.
    • 1576, George Gascoigne, The Steele Glas
      Pampered jades [] which need nor break nor bit.
  18. (music) A short section of music, often between verses, in which some performers stop while others continue.
  19. (music) The point in the musical scale at which a woodwind instrument is designed to overblow, that is, to move from its lower to its upper register.
  20. (geography, chiefly in the plural) An area along a river that features steep banks, bluffs, or gorges (e.g., Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument, US).
  21. (obsolete, slang) error [late 19th–early 20th c.]
Usage notes
  • music The instruments that are named are the ones that carry on playing, for example a fiddle break implies that the fiddle is the most prominent instrument playing during the break.
Synonyms
  • (instance of breaking something into two pieces): split
  • (physical space that opens up in something or between two things): breach, gap, space; see also Thesaurus:interspace or Thesaurus:hole
  • (rest or pause, usually from work): time-out; see also Thesaurus:pause
  • (time for playing outside): playtime (UK), recess (US)
  • (short holiday): day off, time off; see also Thesaurus:vacation
  • (beginning of the morning): crack of dawn; see also Thesaurus:dawn
  • (error): See Thesaurus:error
Derived terms
Translations

Etymology 2

Clipping of breakdown (the percussion break of songs chosen by a DJ for use in hip-hop music) and see also breakdancing.

Noun

break (plural breaks)

  1. (music) A section of extended repetition of the percussion break to a song, created by a hip-hop DJ as rhythmic dance music.
Derived terms
  • Amen break

References

  • break at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • 2001. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: North America. Garland Publishing. Ellen Koskoff (Ed.). Pgs. 694-695.

Anagrams

  • Abrek, Baker, Brake, baker, barke, brake

French

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /bʁɛk/

Etymology 1

Borrowed from English break.

Noun

break m (plural breaks)

  1. break (pause, holiday)
    Synonym: pause
  2. (tennis) break (of serve)

Derived terms

  • balle de break

Etymology 2

From earlier break de chasse, from English shooting brake.

Noun

break m (plural breaks)

  1. (automotive) estate car, station wagon
    Antonym: berline

References

  • “break” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Italian

Etymology

Borrowed from English break.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbrɛk/

Noun

break m (invariable)

  1. break (intermission or brief suspension of activity)

Interjection

break

  1. break! (boxing)

References


Spanish

Noun

break m (plural breaks)

  1. break (pause)
  2. (tennis) break


English

Etymology

From Middle English dampen (to stifle; suffocate). Akin to Low German damp, Dutch damp, and German Dampf (vapor, steam, fog), Icelandic dampi, Swedish damm (dust), and to German dampf imperative of dimpfen (to smoke). Also Middle English dampen (to extinguish, choke, suffocate). Ultimately all descend from Proto-Germanic *dampaz.

Pronunciation

  • enPR: dămp, IPA(key): /dæmp/
  • Rhymes: -æmp

Adjective

damp (comparative damper, superlative dampest)

  1. In a state between dry and wet; moderately wet; moist.
    • 25 January 2017, Leena Camadoo writing in The Guardian, Dominican banana producers at sharp end of climate change
      Once the farms have been drained and the dead plants have been cut down and cleared, farmers then have to be alert for signs of black sigatoka, a devastating fungus which flourishes in damp conditions and can destroy banana farms.
    • 1697, John Dryden translating Virgil, Aeneid Book VI
      She said no more. The trembling Trojans hear,
      O’erspread with a damp sweat and holy fear.
    The lawn was still damp so we decided not to sit down.
    The paint is still damp, so please don’t touch it.
  2. (figuratively) Despondent; dispirited, downcast.
    • 27 July 2016, Jane O’Faherty in The Irish Independent, Monarchs and prison officers win big on second race day
      Though Travis’s ‘Why does it always Rain on Me’ boomed around the stands, there were few damp spirits in Galway on day two of the races.
    • 1667, John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 1, ll. 522-3:
      All these and more came flocking; but with looks / Down cast and damp.
  3. Permitting the possession of alcoholic beverages, but not their sale.

Usage notes

Damp commonly is used for disagreeable conditions and moist often is used for agreeable conditions:

Synonyms

  • (in a state between dry and wet): moist, thoan/thone (dialect); see also Thesaurus:wet
  • (despondent): glum, melancholy, sorrowful; see also Thesaurus:sad

Derived terms

  • dampen
  • dampness

Translations

See also

  • Appendix:Word formation verb -en noun -ness

Noun

damp (countable and uncountable, plural damps)

  1. Moisture; humidity; dampness.
    • c. 1602, William Shakespeare, All’s Well That Ends Well, Act II, Scene 1,[1]
      Ere twice in murk and occidental damp
      Moist Hesperus hath quench’d his sleepy lamp,
    • 1764, Elizabeth Griffith, Amana, London: W. Johnston, Act V, p. 49,[2]
      What means this chilling damp that clings around me!
      Why do I tremble thus!
    • 1848, Elizabeth Gaskell, Mary Barton, Chapter 10,[3]
      Unceasing, soaking rain was falling; the very lamps seemed obscured by the damp upon the glass, and their light reached but to a little distance from the posts.
    • 1928, Virginia Woolf, Orlando: A Biography, Penguin, 1942, Chapter 5, p. 160,[4]
      But what was worse, damp now began to make its way into every house—damp, which is the most insidious of all enemies, for while the sun can be shut out by blinds, and the frost roasted by a hot fire, damp steals in while we sleep; damp is silent, imperceptible, ubiquitous.
    • 2005, Kazuo Ishiguro, Never Let Me Go, London: Faber, 2010, Chapter 10, p. 115,[5]
      We sometimes kept our Wellingtons on the whole day, leaving trails of mud and damp through the rooms.
  2. (archaic) Fog; fogginess; vapor.
    • 1810, Percy Bysshe Shelley and Elizabeth Shelley, “Warrior” in Original Poetry by Victor and Cazire, London: John Lane, 1898, p. 57,[6]
      Her chilling finger on my head,
      With coldest touch congealed my soul—
      Cold as the finger of the dead,
      Or damps which round a tombstone roll—
    • 1887, Thomas Hardy, The Woodlanders, Chapter 40,[7]
      Summer was ending: in the daytime singing insects hung in every sunbeam; vegetation was heavy nightly with globes of dew; and after showers creeping damps and twilight chills came up from the hollows.
  3. (archaic) Dejection or depression; something that spoils a positive emotion (such as enjoyment, satisfaction, expectation or courage) or a desired activity.
    • 1713, Joseph Addison, Cato, A Tragedy, London: Jacob Tonson, Act III, Scene 1, p. 35,[8]
      Ev’n now, while thus I stand blest in thy Presence,
      A secret Damp of Grief comes o’er my Thoughts,
    • 1728, George Carleton (attributed to Daniel Defoe), The Memoirs of an English Officer, London: E. Symon, p. 72,[9]
      But though the War was proclaim’d, and Preparations accordingly made for it, the Expectations from all receiv’d a sudden Damp, by the as sudden Death of King William.
    • 1769, Edmund Burke, Observations on a Late State of the Nation, London: J. Dodsley, p. 33,[10]
      It is in this spirit that some have looked upon those accidents, that cast an occasional damp upon trade.
    • 1813, Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Chapter 50,[11]
      No sentiment of shame gave a damp to her triumph.
    • 1850, Charles Dickens, David Copperfield, Chapter 10,[12]
      [] Mrs. Gummidge [] , I am sorry to relate, cast a damp upon the festive character of our departure, by immediately bursting into tears []
    • 1866, James David Forbes, letter to A. Wills dated 2 January, 1866, in Life and Letters of James David Forbes, London: Macmaillan, 1873, p. 429,[13]
      [] I was concerned to hear from your brother that Mrs. Wills’ health had prevented her accompanying you to Sixt as usual. It must have thrown a damp over your autumn excursion []
  4. (archaic or historical, mining) A gaseous product, formed in coal mines, old wells, pits, etc.
    • 1733, John Arbuthnot, An Essay Concerning the Effects of Air on Human Bodies, London: Jacob Tonson, Chapter 1, p. 19,[14]
      There are sulphurous Vapours which infect the Vegetables, and render the Grass unwholsom to the Cattle that feed upon it: Miners are often hurt by these Steams. Observations made in some of the Mines in Derbyshire, describe four sorts of those Damps.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

damp (third-person singular simple present damps, present participle damping, simple past and past participle damped)

  1. (transitive, archaic) To dampen; to make moderately wet
    Synonym: moisten
  2. (transitive, archaic) To put out, as fire; to weaken, restrain, or make dull.
    • 1887, Sir John Lubbock, The Pleasures of Life
      How many a day has been damped and darkened by an angry word!
    • 1857, Charles Dickens, Little Dorrit Book 1 Chapter 34
      My Lords, that I am yet to be told that it behoves a Minister of this free country to set bounds to the philanthropy, to cramp the charity, to fetter the public spirit, to contract the enterprise, to damp the independent self-reliance of its people.
    • 1848, Thomas Babington Macaulay, The History of England from the Accession of James the Second
      The failure of his enterprise damped the spirit of the soldiers.
    • 1744, Mark Akenside, The Pleasures of the Imagination
      I do not mean to wake the gloomy form Of superstition dress’d in wisdom’s garb, To damp your tender hopes
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, Essays, civil and moral
      Usury dulls and damps all industries, improvements, and new inventions, wherein money would be stirring if it were not for this slug
  3. (transitive) To suppress vibrations (mechanical) or oscillations (electrical) by converting energy to heat (or some other form of energy).

Translations

Anagrams

  • M.D. Pa., MPDA

Danish

Etymology

From German Low German Damp (compare dampen, Dampen n), eventually from Proto-Germanic *dampaz.

Noun

damp c (singular definite dampen, plural indefinite dampe)

  1. steam

Inflection

Verb

damp

  1. imperative of dampe

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /dɑmp/
  • Hyphenation: damp
  • Rhymes: -ɑmp

Etymology 1

From Middle Dutch damp, from Old Dutch *damp, from Proto-Germanic *dampaz.

Noun

damp m (plural dampen, diminutive dampje n)

  1. vapour (UK), vapor (US)
Derived terms
  • dampbad
  • dampkogel
  • dampkring
  • dampvormig
  • gifdamp
  • waterdamp
  • zuurdamp
  • zwaveldamp
Descendants
  • Negerhollands: damp
  • Papiamentu: dam, damp

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

damp

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dampen
  2. imperative of dampen

Middle English

Noun

damp

  1. (when preceding labials) Alternative form of dan

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

From German Low German Damp (compare dampen, Dampen n)

Noun

damp m (definite singular dampen, indefinite plural damper, definite plural dampene)

  1. steam
  2. vapour (UK), vapor (US)
Derived terms
Related terms
  • dampe

Etymology 2

Verb

damp

  1. imperative of dampe

References

  • “damp” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From German Low German Damp (compare dampen, Dampen n)

Noun

damp m (definite singular dampen, indefinite plural dampar, definite plural dampane)

  1. steam
  2. vapour (UK), vapor (US)

Derived terms

Related terms

  • dampe

References

  • “damp” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Swedish

Verb

damp

  1. past tense of dimpa.

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