brother vs chum what difference

what is difference between brother and chum

English

Alternative forms

  • brotha (Jamaican English, AAVE)
  • brothah
  • brothuh

Etymology

From Middle English brother, from Old English brōþor, from Proto-West Germanic *brōþer, from Proto-Germanic *brōþēr (compare North Frisian Bröðer, West Frisian broer, Dutch broeder, German Bruder, Danish broder, Norwegian bror), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr (compare Irish bráthair, Welsh brawd, Latin frāter, Ancient Greek φράτηρ (phrátēr), Armenian եղբայր (ełbayr), Tocharian A pracar, Tocharian B procer, Russian брат (brat), Lithuanian brolis, Persian برادر(barādar),Northern Kurdish bira, Sanskrit भ्रातृ (bhrātṛ)). Doublet of frater, friar, and pal.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈbɹʌðə(ɹ)/
  • (US) enPR: brŭth’ər, IPA(key): /ˈbɹʌðɚ/
  • (General New Zealand) enPR: brŭth’ə(r), IPA(key): /ˈbɹɐðɘ(ɹ)/
  • (th-fronting) enPR: brŭvˈə(r), IPA(key): /ˈbɹʌvə(ɹ)/
  • Rhymes: -ʌðə(r)

Noun

brother (plural brothers or (archaic in most senses) brethren)

  1. Son of the same parents as another person.
  2. A male having at least one parent in common with another (see half-brother, stepbrother).
  3. A male fellow member of a religious community, church, trades union etc.
    • 1975, New King James Version, Deuteronomy 23:19
      You shall not charge interest to your brother—interest on money or food or anything that is lent out at interest.
  4. (informal, dated) A form of address to a man.
  5. (African-American Vernacular) A black male.
    • 1991 January, SPIN, vol. 6, no. 10, page 58:
      SPIN: Aren’t you both as popular with white people as black people?
      L.L.: Oh, no question. But I’ve always said, that’s why when people say, “L.L., hey, like, on the last album, you sold out,” I say, “Yo, can I ask you a question, Mike Tyson sell out?” “No, he’s a brother.” I say, he’s a cross-over artist. He went pop. You know what I’m saying? I mean, the rap audience […] they have to understand that their music is for all people. Me personally, I don’t think it’s about being black or white, []
  6. Somebody, usually male, connected by a common cause or situation.
    • 1963, Martin Luther King Jr.
      The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny.
  7. Someone who is a peer, whether male or female.
    • And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers.

Usage notes

  • The plural “brethren” (cf. “sistren”, “sistern”) is not used for biological brothers in contemporary English (although it was in older usage). It still finds use, however, in the meaning of “members of a religious order”. It is also sometimes used in other figurative senses, e.g. “adherents of the same religion”, “countrymen”, and the like.

Coordinate terms

  • (with regards to gender): sister

Hypernyms

  • (son of common parents): sibling

Derived terms

Related terms

  • Abbreviations: bro, brah, bra, bruh, bruv
  • friar
  • fraternal
  • fraternity

Descendants

  • Bahamian Creole: bredda
  • Belizean Creole: breda
  • Bislama: brata
  • Cameroon Pidgin: bro̱da
  • Gullah: broda
  • Hawaiian Creole: braddah
  • Islander Creole English: broda
  • Japanese: ブラザー
  • Kabuverdianu: bróda
  • Korean: 브라더 (beuradeo)
  • Krio: brohda
  • Nicaraguan Creole: brada
  • Nigerian Pidgin: broda
  • Pichinglis: brɔda
  • Pijin: brata
  • Saramaccan: baáa
  • Sranan Tongo: brada
    • Dutch: brada
  • Tok Pisin: brata, barata
  • Portuguese: bróder, bródi, brother, brada

Translations

See brother/translations § Noun.

Verb

brother (third-person singular simple present brothers, present participle brothering, simple past and past participle brothered)

  1. (transitive) To treat as a brother.
    • 1819, Walter Scott, Ivanhoe:
      Seest thou not we are overreached, and that our proposed mode of communicating with our friends without has been disconcerted by this same motley gentleman thou art so fond to brother?

Translations

See brother/translations § Verb.

Interjection

brother

  1. Expressing exasperation.
    We’re being forced to work overtime? Oh, brother!

Middle English

Alternative forms

  • broþer, broþir, broþur, broder, broðer, brothir, brothur, broiþer, bruther, brodir, broder, brothre, broþre, brodyr
  • (Ormulum) broþerr

Etymology

From Old English brōþor, from Proto-West Germanic *brōþer, from Proto-Germanic *brōþēr, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr. Doublet of frere.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈbroːðər/

Noun

brother (plural brether or bretheren or brotheren or (rare) brothers, genitive brother or brothers)

  1. A brother or brother-in-law; a male sibling.
  2. A (Christian) man (i.e. as a “brother in life/brother in Christ”).
  3. A blood brother; one in a mutual pact of loyalty between two.
  4. Another member of a religious community or order (when one is a member)
  5. Another member of a guild or craft association (when one is a member)
  6. A male individual who one has a close platonic relationship with.
  7. (rare) One of one’s peers as a ruler; (another) ruler.
  8. (rare) A relative or family member who is a man.
  9. (rare, alchemy) Something similar to something else.

Related terms

  • brotherhede
  • brother-in-lawe
  • brotherles
  • brotherly
  • brotherwort

Descendants

  • English: brother (see there for further descendants)
  • Scots: brither, bruther, broder, bruder
  • Yola: brover, brower

References

  • “brọ̄ther, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2019-02-21.

Old Frisian

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *brōþēr.

Noun

brōther m

  1. brother

Descendants

  • North Frisian:
    Amrum: bruder
    Föhr: bruler
    Northern Goesharder: (Hoolmer) broor, (Hoorninger) brår
    Southern Goesharder: brööðer
    Hallig: bröör
    Halunder: Bruur
    Mooring: brouder
    Söl’ring: Bröðer
  • Saterland Frisian: Brúur, Brour
  • West Frisian: broer

Portuguese

Noun

brother m (plural brothers)

  1. Alternative spelling of bróder


English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation, US) IPA(key): /tʃʌm/
  • Rhymes: -ʌm

Etymology 1

1675–85; of uncertain origin, possibly from cham, shortening of chambermate, or from comrade. Less likely from Welsh cymrawd (fellow), compare brawd (brother).

Noun

chum (plural chums)

  1. (dated) A friend; a pal.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:friend
  2. (dated) A roommate, especially in a college or university.
    • 1856 in The Knickerbocker: Or, New-York Monthly Magazine [1]
      Field had a ‘chum,’ or room-mate, whose visage was suggestive to the ‘Sophs;’ it invited experiment; it held out opportunity for their peculiar deviltry.
Derived terms
  • chummery
  • chumming
  • chummy
  • chumocracy
Descendants
  • French: chum (Québec)
  • Spanish: chamo (Venezuela)
  • Swedish: tjomme (Gothenburg dialect)
  • Norwegian: tjommi (Bergen dialect)
Translations

Verb

chum (third-person singular simple present chums, present participle chumming, simple past and past participle chummed)

  1. (intransitive) To share rooms with someone; to live together.
    • 1899 Clyde Bowman Furst, A Group of Old Authors [2]
      Henry Wotton and John Donne began to be friends when, as boys, they chummed together at Oxford, where Donne had gone at the age of twelve years.
  2. (transitive) To lodge (somebody) with another person or people.
  3. (intransitive) To make friends; to socialize.
    • 1902 Ernest William Hornung, The Amateur Cracksman [3]
      “You’ll make yourself disliked on board!”
      “By von Heumann merely.”
      “But is that wise when he’s the man we’ve got to diddle?”
      “The wisest thing I ever did. To have chummed up with him would have been fatal — the common dodge.”
  4. (transitive, Scotland, informal) To accompany.
Conjugation

Etymology 2

Originally American English, from the 1850s. Perhaps from Powhatan.

Noun

chum (uncountable)

  1. (fishing) A mixture of (frequently rancid) fish parts and blood, dumped into the water as groundbait to attract predator fish, such as sharks
Derived terms
  • chumsicle
Translations

Verb

chum (third-person singular simple present chums, present participle chumming, simple past and past participle chummed)

  1. (fishing, transitive, intransitive) To cast chum into the water to attract fish.
    • 1996 Frank Sargeant, The Reef Fishing Book: A Complete Anglers Guide [4]
      Small live baitfish are effective, and they will take bits of fresh cut fish when chummed strongly.

Etymology 3

Noun

chum (plural chums)

  1. (pottery) A coarse mould for holding the clay while being worked on a whirler, lathe or manually.
    • 1915, The Pottery & Glass Salesman, volume 11, O’Gorman Publishing Company.
      …self-supporting chum within the mould normally of corresponding and almost the same but lesser contour, whereby a space is provided between the chum and mould for the introduction of the powdered material and means for expanding the chum’.
    • 1920, The South African Journal of Industries, volume 3, part 2, p. 820
      He uses a round slab of clay, which he places on top of the chum and commences to thump down around the sides.
    • 1921, A Survey and Analysis of the Pottery Industry, bulletin no. 67, trade and industrial series no. 20, Washington: Federal Board for Vocational Training.
      Chum,—A mold used on the whirler to hold ware for scraping and finishing.
    • 1972, Neal French, Industrial Ceramics—Tableware, Oxford University Press
      Now that shapes were more uniform this was usually done on a horizontal lathe with the bowl automatically centred on a wooden chum
      This is a more useful method: it is used in making oval casseroles. The liner is made by spreading a bat and tehn forming it over a felt-covered chum, oval in shape.
      Chum or chuck: Lathe attachment for holding pots during turning process.

Anagrams

  • much

French

Etymology

Borrowed from English chum.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /tʃɔm/

Noun

chum m (plural chums, feminine blonde or chum de fille)

  1. (Canada, informal, Quebec) boyfriend
    Synonyms: petit ami, ami de cœur, (dated) fiancé, conjoint
    Coordinate term: blonde
  2. (Canada, chiefly slang, Quebec) a friend, usually male; a chum
    Synonyms: copain, ami
    Coordinate term: chum de fille

Derived terms

  • chum de fille

Irish

Etymology 1

Inflected form of cum.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /xuːmˠ/, /xʊmˠ/

Verb

chum

  1. past indicative analytic of cum
  2. Lenited form of cum.

Etymology 2

From Old Irish dochum.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /xʊnˠ/

Preposition

chum (plus genitive, triggers no mutation)

  1. Obsolete spelling of chun

Old Irish

Verb

·chum

  1. Lenited form of ·cum.

Palauan

Etymology

From Pre-Palauan *qumaŋ, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *qumaŋ, from Proto-Austronesian *qumaŋ. Cognate with Cebuano umang, Tiruray kumang, Marshallese om̧.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ʔum/

Noun

chum

  1. hermit crab

Scottish Gaelic

Preposition

chum

  1. Alternative form of chun

Verb

chum

  1. past indicative of cum

Mutation


Vietnamese

Pronunciation

  • (Hà Nội) IPA(key): [t͡ɕum˧˧]
  • (Huế) IPA(key): [t͡ɕum˧˧]
  • (Hồ Chí Minh City) IPA(key): [cʊm˧˧]

Noun

(classifier cái) chum • (????)

  1. a kind of vase used to contain water

See also

  • lu

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