capitulum vs spike what difference

what is difference between capitulum and spike

English

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin capitulum. Doublet of chapiter and chapter.

Noun

capitulum (plural capitula)

  1. (botany) A densely clustered inflorescence composed of a large number of individual florets arising from a platform-like base.
  2. (arachnology) The head-like mouthpart apparatus of a tick, including the palpi, mandibles, and hypostome.
  3. (anatomy) A small protuberance on a bone which articulates into another bone to form a ball-and-socket joint.
  4. (entomology, obsolete) The enlarged end of a proboscis.

Synonyms

  • capitellum

Translations


Latin

Alternative forms

  • (part or division of a writing): cap., c.

Etymology

From caput (head) +‎ -ulum (diminutive suffix).

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /kaˈpi.tu.lum/, [käˈpɪt̪ʊɫ̪ʊ̃ˑ]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /kaˈpi.tu.lum/, [kɑˈpiːt̪ulum]

Noun

capitulum n (genitive capitulī); second declension (Diminutive of caput)

  1. A head-like object or structure.
  2. (Late Latin) A chapter, either:
    1. A prominent section or formal division of a text.
    2. Various civic and ecclesiastical councils or bodies, as cathedral chapters.

Declension

Second-declension noun (neuter).

Synonyms

  • (Late Latin: prominent part or division of a writing): caput

Derived terms

  • capitellum

Descendants

References

  • capitulum in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • capitulum in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • capitulum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • capitulum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • capitulum in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • capitulum in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[1], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • capitulum in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly
  • capitulum in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin


English

Etymology

From Middle English spike, spyke, spik , from Old Norse spík (spike, sprig), from Proto-Germanic *spīkō (stick, splinter, point), from Proto-Indo-European *spey- (to be pointed; sharp point, stick). Cognate with Icelandic spík (spike), Swedish spik (spike, nail), Dutch spijker (nail), Old English spīcing (spike), and Latin spīca (ear of corn), which may have influenced some senses.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /spaɪk/
  • Rhymes: -aɪk

Noun

spike (plural spikes)

  1. A sort of very large nail.
  2. A piece of pointed metal etc. set with points upward or outward.
  3. (by extension) Anything resembling such a nail in shape.
    • He wears on his head the corona radiata [] ; the spikes that shoot out represent the rays of the sun.
  4. An ear of corn or grain.
  5. (botany) A kind of inflorescence in which sessile flowers are arranged on an unbranched elongated axis.
    Synonyms: catkin, raceme, cluster, corymb, umbel
  6. (informal, chiefly in the plural) A running shoe with spikes in the sole to provide grip.
  7. A sharp peak in a graph.
  8. A surge in power or in the price of a commodity etc.
  9. The long, narrow part of a high-heeled shoe that elevates the heel.
  10. A long nail for storing papers by skewering them; (by extension) the metaphorical place where rejected newspaper articles are sent.
    Synonym: spindle
    • 1974, Books and Bookmen
      It was all true, it appeared. He sat down and wrote it, the editor read it and said: ‘ We don’t use stories like this in this newspaper.’ So the story ended up on the spike, reinforcing the principle that wife-swapping, unlike justice, must not be seen to be done.
    • 2005, David Bouchier, Writer at Work: Reflections on the Art and Business of Writing, iUniverse →ISBN
      Later I was entrusted with writing the letters to the editor, because nobody else ever wrote to our paper. The editor, Eric Lewis, had a slash and burn style of editing that left its mark on me forever. Most of my stories ended up on the spike.
    • 2013, Margalit Fox, Riddle of the Labyrinth: The Quest to Crack an Ancient Code and the Uncovering of a Lost Civilisation, Profile Books →ISBN
      Assuming that word of the death reached the Times’s newsroom at all, it would have taken little more than one bleary-eyed night editor who had heard neither of Ventris nor of linear B for the obituary to have been consigned to the spike.
  11. (volleyball) An attack from, usually, above the height of the net performed with the intent to send the ball straight to the floor of the opponent or off the hands of the opposing block.
  12. (zoology) An adolescent male deer.
  13. (slang, historical) The casual ward of a workhouse.
    • 1933: George Orwell, Down and Out in Paris and London, p. 139.
      “Dere’s tay spikes, and cocoa spikes, and skilly spikes.”
  14. Spike lavender.
  15. (music, lutherie) Synonym of endpin.
  16. (theater) A mark indicating where a prop or other item should be placed on stage.
    • 2020, John Ramsey Holloway, ‎Zachary Stribling, Illustrated Theatre Production Guide (page 15)
      Sometimes actors set props on the spikes, or sometimes a deckhand will do it, depending on the action of the play.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

spike (third-person singular simple present spikes, present participle spiking, simple past and past participle spiked)

  1. To fasten with spikes, or long, large nails.
    to spike down planks
  2. To set or furnish with spikes.
  3. To embed nails into (a tree) so that any attempt to cut it down will damage equipment or injure people.
  4. To fix on a spike.
    • 1950, Cyril M. Kornbluth, “The Little Black Bag”, Astounding Science Fiction, Volume 45, Issue 4:
      He spiked the story on the “dead” hook and answered his interphone.
    • 1996, Christine Quigley, The Corpse: A History, McFarland, page 144:
      Better known as Vlad Tepes (Vlad the Impaler), he spiked his victims on stakes arranged in geometric patterns and accorded each a high or low spear, according to his or her rank.
  5. (figuratively, journalism) To discard; to decide not to publish or make public.
    • 1981, Chris Greyvenstein, The Fighters (page 145):
      Nicolaas, or Nick, as the family called him, wanted to turn professional but an ear injury, sustained during the war, spiked his plans.
    • 2002, October 14, Jonathan Sale, “Edward VIII news blackout”, The Guardian:
      Instead, the “Beaver” declared he would spike the story about Wallis Simpson and make sure his fellow media moguls sat on it too.
    • 2017 October 11, Lloyd Grove, “How NBC ‘Killed’ Ronan Farrow’s Weinstein Exposé”, Daily Beast:
      With two such wildly contradictory versions of why and how NBC News spiked Farrow’s Weinstein story, it’s difficult to determine what objectively occurred.
  6. To increase sharply.
    Traffic accidents spiked in December when there was ice on the roads.
    • 2017, Jennifer S. Holland, For These Monkeys, It’s a Fight for Survival., National Geographic (March 2017)[1]
      But the bigger threat is that people in Sulawesi have been eating macaque meat for centuries. Today it goes for about two dollars a pound (an adult macaque weighs 18 to 23 pounds), and demand spikes at holidays.
  7. To covertly put alcohol or another intoxicating substance into a drink.
    She spiked my lemonade with vodka!
  8. To add a small amount of one substance to another.
    The water sample to be tested has been spiked with arsenic, antimony, mercury, and lead in quantities commonly found in industrial effluents.
  9. (volleyball) To attack from, usually, above the height of the net with the intent to send the ball straight to the floor of the opponent or off the hands of the opposing block.
  10. (military) To render (a gun) unusable by driving a metal spike into its touch hole.
    • 1834, Frederick Marryat, Peter Simple:
      He jumped down, wrenched the hammer from the armourer’s hand, and seizing a nail from the bag, in a few moments he had spiked the gun.
    • 1990, Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game, Folio Society 2010, p. 235-6:
      Small skirmishes also took place, and the Afghans managed to seize a pair of mule-guns and force the British to spike and abandon two other precious guns.
  11. (football slang) To slam the football to the ground, usually in celebration of scoring a touchdown, or to stop expiring time on the game clock after snapping the ball as to save time for the losing team to attempt to score the tying or winning points.

Synonyms

  • (volleyball): attack, hit

Derived terms

  • spike a temperature
  • spike someone’s guns

Translations

References

Anagrams

  • Pikes, Sipek, kepis, kipes, pikes

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