casual vs perfunctory what difference

what is difference between casual and perfunctory

English

Alternative forms

  • casuall (obsolete)
  • (shortening, informal) cazh

Etymology

From Middle French casuel, from Late Latin cāsuālis (happening by chance), from Latin cāsus (event) (English case), from cadere (to fall) (whence English cadence).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈkaʒuəl/, /ˈkaʒjuəl/, /ˈkazjuəl/, /ˈkaʒəl/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈkæʒuəl/, /ˈkæʒwəl/, /ˈkæʒəl/
  • (General New Zealand) IPA(key): /ˈkɛʒʉɘl/, /ˈkɛʒɘl/
  • (obsolete) IPA(key): /-uæl/
  • Hyphenation: ca‧su‧al, cas‧ual, casu‧al

Adjective

casual (comparative more casual, superlative most casual)

  1. Happening by chance.
    • casual breaks, in the general system
  2. Coming without regularity; occasional or incidental.
    • a constant habit, rather than a casual gesture
  3. Employed irregularly.
  4. Careless.
    • 2007, Nick Holland, The Girl on the Bus (page 117)
      I removed my jacket and threw it casually over the back of the settee.
  5. Happening or coming to pass without design.
    • 2012, Jeff Miller, Grown at Glen Garden: Ben Hogan, Byron Nelson, and the Little Texas Golf Course that Propelled Them to Stardom
      Hogan assumed the entire creek bed was to be played as a casual hazard, moved his ball out and assessed himself a one-stroke penalty.
  6. Informal, relaxed.
  7. Designed for informal or everyday use.

Synonyms

  • (happening by chance): accidental, fortuitous, incidental, occasional, random; see also Thesaurus:accidental
  • (happening or coming to pass without design): unexpected
  • (relaxed; everyday use): informal

Antonyms

  • (happening by chance): inevitable, necessary
  • (happening or coming to pass without design): expected, scheduled
  • (relaxed; everyday use): ceremonial, formal

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

casual (plural casuals)

  1. (Britain, Australia, New Zealand) A worker who is only working for a company occasionally, not as its permanent employee.
  2. A soldier temporarily at a place of duty, usually en route to another place of duty.
  3. (Britain) A member of a group of football hooligans who wear expensive designer clothing to avoid police attention; see casual (subculture).
  4. One who receives relief for a night in a parish to which he does not belong; a vagrant.
  5. (video games, informal, derogatory) A player of casual games.
  6. (fandom slang) A person whose engagement with media is relaxed or superficial.
    • 1972, Lee C. Garrison, “The Needs of Motion Picture Audiences”, California Management Review, Volume 15, Issue 2, Winter 1972, page 149:
      Casuals outnumbered regulars in the art-house audience two to one.
    • 2010, Jennifer Gillan, Television and New Media: Must-Click TV, page 16:
      Most often, when a series is marketed toward casuals, the loyals feel that their interests and needs are not being met.
    • 2018, E. J. Nielsen, “The Gay Elephant Meta in the Room: Sherlock and the Johnlock Conspiracy”, in Queerbaiting and Fandom: Teasing Fans Through Homoerotic Possibilities (ed. Joseph Brennan), page 91:
      Treating a gay relationship as a puzzle that must be pursued by the clever viewers and hidden from “casuals” until a narrative reveal at the eleventh hour seems antithetical to the idea of normalized representation that TJLCers claim as the main reason they want Johnlock to be canon, []
  7. (Britain, dated) A tramp.

Translations

Related terms

  • casualty
  • case

References

  • casual in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.

Anagrams

  • Calusa, casula, causal

Catalan

Adjective

casual (masculine and feminine plural casuals)

  1. casual
  2. unplanned

Derived terms

  • casualitat
  • casualment

Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: ca‧su‧al
  • Rhymes: -al, -aw

Adjective

casual m or f (plural casuais, comparable)

  1. casual (happening by chance)
    Synonym: fortuito
  2. casual (coming without regularity)
    Synonym: ocasional
  3. casual (designed for informal or everyday use)

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • Rhymes: -al

Adjective

casual (plural casuales)

  1. casual
  2. accidental
  3. coincidental, chance

Derived terms

  • casualmente

Descendants

  • Cebuano: kaswal

Further reading

  • “casual” in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014.


English

Etymology

From Late Latin perfunctōrius, from the past participial stem of perfungor, perfunct- (perform, carry through), from per- + fungor.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /pəˈfʌŋk.t(ə)ɹɪ/
  • (US) IPA(key): /pɚˈfʌŋk.tɚ.i/

Adjective

perfunctory (comparative more perfunctory, superlative most perfunctory)

  1. Done only or merely to conform to a minimal standard or to fulfill a protocol or presumptive duty .
    Synonyms: automatic, cursory, obligatory, pro forma, token, unthinking
    • 1975, Saul Bellow, Humboldt’s Gift [Avon ed., 1976, p. 338]:
      He then poured some wine for me to taste, and harassed me with perfunctory courtesies that had to be acknowledged.
  2. Performed in a careless or indifferent manner as a thing of rote.
    Synonyms: haphazard, mechanical, slipshod
    Antonyms: careful, complete, thorough

Related terms

  • perfunctorily
  • perfunctoriness

Translations

See also

  • pro forma

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