cleave vs split what difference

what is difference between cleave and split

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /kliːv/
  • (US) IPA(key): /kliv/
  • Rhymes: -iːv

Etymology 1

From Middle English cleven, from the Old English strong verb clēofan (to split, to separate), from Proto-Germanic *kleubaną, from Proto-Indo-European *glewbʰ- (to cut, to slice). Doublet of clive. Cognate with Dutch klieven, dialectal German klieben, Swedish klyva, Norwegian Nynorsk kløyva; also Ancient Greek γλύφω (glúphō, carve).

Verb

cleave (third-person singular simple present cleaves, present participle cleaving, simple past cleft or clove or (UK) cleaved or (archaic) clave, past participle cleft or cloven or (UK) cleaved)

  1. (transitive) To split or sever something with, or as if with, a sharp instrument.
    The wings cleaved the foggy air.
  2. (transitive, mineralogy) To break a single crystal (such as a gemstone or semiconductor wafer) along one of its more symmetrical crystallographic planes (often by impact), forming facets on the resulting pieces.
  3. (transitive) To make or accomplish by or as if by cutting.
    The truck cleaved a path through the ice.
  4. (transitive, chemistry) To split (a complex molecule) into simpler molecules.
  5. (intransitive) To split.
  6. (intransitive, mineralogy) Of a crystal, to split along a natural plane of division.
Related terms
Translations

Noun

cleave (plural cleaves)

  1. (technology) Flat, smooth surface produced by cleavage, or any similar surface produced by similar techniques, as in glass.
Related terms
  • cleavage
  • cleft

Derived terms

  • cleaver

Etymology 2

From Middle English cleven, a conflation of two verbs: Old English clifian (from Proto-Germanic *klibāną) and Old English clīfan (from Proto-Germanic *klībaną), both ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gleybʰ- (to stick).

Verb

cleave (third-person singular simple present cleaves, present participle cleaving, simple past and past participle cleaved)

  1. (intransitive) To cling, adhere or stick fast to something; used with to or unto.

Translations

Synonyms
  • See also Thesaurus:adhere

References

  • cleave in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • cleave in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.


English

Etymology

Attested since about 1567, from Middle Dutch splitten (to split) and/or Middle Low German splitten (to split), from Old Saxon *splītan, both intensive forms related to Proto-West Germanic *splītan, from Proto-Germanic *splītaną (whence Danish splitte, Low German splieten, German spleißen), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)pley- (to split, splice).

Compare Old English speld (splinter), Old High German spaltan (to split), Old Irish sliss (splinter), Lithuanian spaliai (flax sheaves), Czech půl (half), Old Church Slavonic рас-плитати (ras-plitati, to cleave, split).

Pronunciation

  • enPR: splĭt, IPA(key): /splɪt/

Adjective

split (not comparable)

  1. Divided.
    Republicans appear split on the centerpiece of Mr. Obama’s economic recovery plan.
  2. (algebra, of a short exact sequence) Having the middle group equal to the direct product of the others.
  3. (of coffee) Comprising half decaffeinated and half caffeinated espresso.
  4. (stock exchange, of an order, sale, etc.) Divided so as to be done or executed part at one time or price and part at another time or price.
  5. (stock exchange, historical, of quotations) Given in sixteenths rather than eighths.
    10+316 is a split quotation.
  6. (London stock exchange) Designating ordinary stock that has been divided into preferred ordinary and deferred ordinary.

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

split (plural splits)

  1. A crack or longitudinal fissure.
  2. A breach or separation, as in a political party; a division.
  3. A piece that is split off, or made thin, by splitting; a splinter; a fragment.
    • 1929, United States Tariff Commission, Agricultural products and provisions (page 1334)
      The kernels split in shelling, known as splits, form a fifth grade of shelled Virginia peanuts.
  4. (leather manufacture) One of the sections of a skin made by dividing it into two or more thicknesses.
  5. (gymnastics, cheerleading, dance, usually in the phrase “to do the splits”) A maneuver of spreading or sliding the feet apart until the legs are flat on the floor 180 degrees apart, either sideways to the body or with one leg in front and one behind, thus lowering the body completely to the floor in an upright position.
  6. (bodybuilding) A workout routine as seen by its distribution of muscle groups or the extent and manner they are targeted in a microcycle.
    Hyponym: bro split
  7. (baseball, slang) A split-finger fastball.
    He’s got a nasty split.
  8. (bowling) A result of a first throw that leaves two or more pins standing with one or more pins between them knocked down.
  9. A split shot or split stroke.
  10. A dessert or confection resembling a banana split.
  11. A unit of measure used for champagne or other spirits: 18.75 centiliters or one quarter of a standard 75-centiliter bottle. Commercially comparable to 120 (US) gallon, which is 12 of a fifth.
  12. A bottle of wine containing 37.5 centiliters, half the volume of a standard 75-centiliter bottle; a demi.
  13. (athletics) The elapsed time at specific intermediate points in a race.
    In the 3000 m race, his 800 m split was 1:45.32
  14. (video games) The elapsed time at specific intermediate points in a speedrun.
  15. (construction) A tear resulting from tensile stresses.
  16. (gambling) A division of a stake happening when two cards of the kind on which the stake is laid are dealt in the same turn.
  17. (music) A recording containing songs by multiple artists.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

split (third-person singular simple present splits, present participle splitting, simple past and past participle split)

  1. (transitive, ergative, of something solid) To divide fully or partly along a more or less straight line.
    Synonym: cleave
    • 1660, Robert Boyle, New Experiments Physico-Mechanical: Touching the Spring of the Air and their Effects
      a huge vessel of exceeding hard marble split asunder by congealed water
  2. (intransitive, of something solid, particularly wood) To break along the grain fully or partly along a more or less straight line.
  3. (transitive) To share; to divide.
  4. (transitive, intransitive, slang) To leave.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:leave
  5. (intransitive, of a couple) To separate.
    Synonyms: break up, split up
  6. (transitive, intransitive) To (cause to) break up; to throw into discord.
    Accusations of bribery split the party just before the election.
  7. (algebra, transitive and intransitive, acts on a polynomial) To factor into linear factors.
    • 2007, John M. Howie, Fields and Galois Theory, Springer, page 103,
      In the first case





      X

      2



      2


      {\displaystyle X^{2}-2}

      , the minimum polynomial of






      2




      {\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}

      , splits completely over





      Q

      (


      2


      )


      {\displaystyle \mathbb {Q} ({\sqrt {2}})}

      ; in the second case we see that





      X

      3



      2


      {\displaystyle X^{3}-2}

      , the minimum polynomial of




      3


      2




      {\displaystyle 3{\sqrt {2}}}

      , does not split completely over





      Q

      (
      3


      2


      )


      {\displaystyle \mathbb {Q} (3{\sqrt {2}})}

      .

  8. To be broken; to be dashed to pieces.
  9. (intransitive) To burst out laughing.
  10. (intransitive, slang, dated) To divulge a secret; to betray confidence; to peach.
    • [] I split, and tell all []
  11. (sports, especially baseball) For both teams involved in a doubleheader to win one game each and lose another.
  12. (intransitive, politics) To vote for candidates of opposite parties.
Derived terms

Translations

Anagrams

  • slipt, spilt, stilp

Danish

Verb

split

  1. imperative of splitte

Spanish

Etymology

From English splits.

Noun

split m (uncountable)

  1. splits

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Swedish split, borrowed from Middle Low German spliten (to split)

Noun

split n or c

  1. discord, strife, dissension
    Det blir avunden och splitet, som blir Sveriges fördärv.

    It is the envy and the strife, that will be Sweden’s demise.
  2. a split (of shares in a company)
  3. a side split, a straddle split (in gymnastics)

Declension

See also

  • aktiesplit
  • spagat
  • splits
  • splitt

Anagrams

  • pilts

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