compose vs pen what difference

what is difference between compose and pen

English

Etymology

From Middle English composen, from Old French composer (to compose, compound, adjust, settle), from com- + poser, as an adaptation of Latin componere (to put together, compose), from com- (together) + ponere (to put, place)

Pronunciation

  • (General American) enPR: kəm-pōzʹ, IPA(key): /kəmˈpoʊz/
  • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: kəm-pōzʹ, IPA(key): /kəmˈpəʊz/
  • Rhymes: -əʊz

Verb

compose (third-person singular simple present composes, present participle composing, simple past and past participle composed)

  1. (transitive) To make something by merging parts. [from later 15th c.]
    • December 22 1678, Thomas Sprat, A Sermon Preached before the King at White-Hall
      Zeal ought to be composed of the highest degrees of all pious affection.
  2. (transitive) To make up the whole; to constitute.
    • A few useful things [] compose their intellectual possessions.
  3. (transitive, nonstandard) To comprise.
  4. (transitive or intransitive) To construct by mental labor; to think up; particularly, to produce or create a literary or musical work.
    • 1714, Alexander Pope, Imitation of Horace, Book II. Sat. 6
      Let me [] compose / Something in Verse as true as Prose.
    • 1838, Benjamin Haydon, Painting, and the fine arts
      the genius that composed such works as the “Standard” and “Last Supper”
  5. (sometimes reflexive) To calm; to free from agitation.
    • Compose thy mind; / Nor frauds are here contrived, nor force designed.
  6. To arrange the elements of a photograph or other picture.
  7. To settle (an argument, dispute etc.); to come to a settlement.
    • 2010, Christopher Hitchens, Hitch-22, Atlantic 2011, p. 280:
      By trying his best to compose matters with the mullahs, he had sincerely shown that he did not seek a violent collision []
  8. To arrange in proper form; to reduce to order; to put in proper state or condition.
    • In a peaceful grave my corpse compose.
  9. (printing, dated) To arrange (types) in a composing stick for printing; to typeset.

Synonyms

  • (make up the whole): constitute, form; see also Thesaurus:compose

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations


French

Verb

compose

  1. first-person singular present indicative of composer
  2. third-person singular present indicative of composer
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of composer
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of composer
  5. second-person singular imperative of composer

Italian

Verb

compose

  1. third-person singular past historic of comporre


English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɛn/
    • (pinpen merger) IPA(key): /pɪn/
  • Rhymes: -ɛn
  • Homophone: pin (pin-pen merger)

Etymology 1

From Middle English pen, penne (enclosure for animals), from Old English penn (enclosure, fold, pen), from Proto-Germanic *pennō, *pannijō (pin, bolt, nail, tack), from Proto-Indo-European *bend- (pointed peg, nail, edge).

Sense “prison” originally figurative extension to “enclosure for persons” (1845), later influenced by penitentiary (prison), being analyzed as an abbreviation (1884).

Noun

pen (plural pens)

  1. An enclosure (enclosed area) used to contain domesticated animals, especially sheep or cattle.
  2. (slang) Penitentiary, i.e. a state or federal prison for convicted felons.
  3. (baseball) The bullpen.

Derived terms

  • bullpen
  • Pen Mill (or perhaps from Etymology 3)

Related terms

  • pin

Translations

Etymology 2

From Middle English pennen, from Old English *pennian (to close, lock, bolt, attested in onpennian (to open)), derived from penn (see above). Akin to Low German pennen (to secure a door with a bolt).

Verb

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned or pent)

  1. (transitive) To enclose in a pen.
Derived terms
  • pent
  • pent-up

Translations

Etymology 3

From Middle English penne, from Anglo-Norman penne, from Old French penne, from Latin penna (feather), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to rush, fly) (from which petition). Proto-Indo-European base also root of *petra-, from which Ancient Greek πτερόν (pterón, wing) (whence pterodactyl), Sanskrit पत्रम् (patram, wing, feather), Old Church Slavonic перо (pero, pen), Old Norse fjǫðr, Old English feðer (Modern English feather); note the /p/ → /f/ Germanic sound change.

See feather and πέτομαι (pétomai) for more.

Noun

pen (plural pens)

  1. A tool, originally made from a feather but now usually a small tubular instrument, containing ink used to write or make marks.
  2. (figuratively) A writer, or his style.
    • those learned pens
  3. (colloquial) Marks of ink left by a pen.
  4. A light pen.
  5. (zoology) The internal cartilage skeleton of a squid, shaped like a pen.
  6. (now rare, poetic, dialectal) A feather, especially one of the flight feathers of a bird, angel etc.
  7. (poetic) A wing.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

pen (third-person singular simple present pens, present participle penning, simple past and past participle penned)

  1. (transitive) To write (an article, a book, etc.).

Translations

Etymology 4

Origin uncertain. Compare hen.

Noun

pen (plural pens)

  1. A female swan.

Synonyms

  • swaness (rare)

Translations

Etymology 5

Clipping of penalty.

Noun

pen (plural pens)

  1. (soccer, slang) Penalty.

References

Anagrams

  • NEP, Nep, PNe, nep

Angloromani

Alternative forms

  • pan, pey

Etymology

From Romani phen, from Sanskrit भगिनी (bhaginī).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈpʰen], [ˈpen], [pʰɛn]

Noun

pen

  1. sister
    Synonyms: minnipen, rakla

Derived terms

References

  • “pen” in The Manchester Romani Project, Angloromani Dictionary.

Cumbric

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *penn, from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom, of uncertain derivation.

Noun

pen

  1. head
  2. top, summit

References

  • Attested in Cumbric toponymic compounds and phrasal names (Pen-y-Ghent)

Danish

Etymology 1

From late Old Norse penni, from Latin penna (feather).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɛnˀ/, [pʰɛnˀ]

Noun

pen c (singular definite pennen, plural indefinite penne)

  1. pen
  2. quill
  3. pane, peen
Declension

Etymology 2

Adjective

pen (neuter pent, plural and definite singular attributive pene, comparative penere, superlative (predicative) penest, superlative (attributive) peneste)

  1. Obsolete spelling of pæn

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch penne, ultimately from Latin penna. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɛn/
  • Hyphenation: pen
  • Rhymes: -ɛn

Noun

pen f (plural pennen, diminutive pennetje n)

  1. a long feather of a bird
  2. pen (writing utensil)
  3. pin
    Synonym: pin

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Afrikaans: pen
  • Negerhollands: pen
  • Indonesian: pen
  • Papiamentu: pèn, pen, pènchi, pennetsje (from the diminutive)

Anagrams

  • nep

Haitian Creole

Etymology

From French pain (bread)

Noun

pen

  1. bread

Indonesian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛn]
  • Hyphenation: pèn

Etymology 1

From Dutch pen, from Latin penna (feather, pen). Doublet of pena.

Noun

pèn (first-person possessive penku, second-person possessive penmu, third-person possessive pennya)

  1. (nonstandard) alternative form of pena (pen).
  2. (medicine) pin, metal used to fasten or as a bearing.

Etymology 2

Verb

pen

  1. (slang) Syncopic form of pengen

Further reading

  • “pen” in Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) Daring, Jakarta: Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia, 2016.

Japanese

Romanization

pen

  1. Rōmaji transcription of ペン

Mandarin

Romanization

pen

  1. Nonstandard spelling of pēn.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of pén.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of pěn.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of pèn.

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Mapudungun

Verb

pen (Raguileo spelling)

  1. to see
    Synonym: petun

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Anglo-Norman penne.

Noun

pen

  1. Alternative form of penne

Etymology 2

From Old English penn, from Proto-Germanic *pennō, perhaps from the root of pinn (peg, pin).

Alternative forms

  • penne, peyn

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɛn/
  • Rhymes: -ɛn

Noun

pen

  1. A enclosed structure for securing animals.
Related terms
Descendants
  • English: pen
  • Scots: pen
References
  • “pen, n.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2018-04-24.
  • Douglas Harper (2001–2021), “pen”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Mindiri

Noun

pen

  1. woman

Further reading

  • Malcolm Ross, Proto Oceanic and the Austronesian Languages of Western Melanesia, Pacific Linguistics, series C-98 (1988)

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

Possibly from French.

Adjective

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penere, indefinite superlative penest, definite superlative peneste)

  1. nice
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking

References

  • “pen” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

Possibly from French.

Adjective

pen (neuter singular pent, definite singular and plural pene, comparative penare, indefinite superlative penast, definite superlative penaste)

  1. nice
  2. neat
  3. beautiful, pretty
  4. handsome, good-looking

References

  • “pen” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Rade

Etymology

Borrowed from French pince.

Noun

pen

  1. pincers

Tok Pisin

Etymology 1

From English paint.

Noun

pen

  1. paint

Etymology 2

From English pen.

Noun

pen

  1. pen

Etymology 3

From English pain.

Noun

pen

  1. pain

Volapük

Noun

pen (nominative plural pens)

  1. pen

Declension


Welsh

Etymology

From Middle Welsh and Old Welsh penn, from Proto-Brythonic *penn, from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɛn/

Noun

pen m (plural pennau)

  1. (anatomy) head
  2. chief
  3. top, apex
  4. end, extremity

Related terms

Adjective

pen (feminine singular pen, plural pen, equative penned, comparative pennach, superlative pennaf)

  1. head
  2. chief
  3. supreme, principal

Mutation

References

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “pen”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

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