congratulate vs preen what difference

what is difference between congratulate and preen

English

Alternative forms

  • gratulate (archaic)

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin congratulor, congratulatus, from gratus (blessing).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kənˈɡɹæ.t͡ʃʊˌleɪt/, /-t͡ʃə-/
  • (US, sometimes) IPA(key): /kənˈɡɹæ.d͡ʒʊˌleɪt/, /-d͡ʒə-/

Verb

congratulate (third-person singular simple present congratulates, present participle congratulating, simple past and past participle congratulated)

  1. To express one’s sympathetic pleasure or joy to the person(s) it is felt for.
    Remind me to congratulate Dave and Lisa on their wedding.
  2. (reflexive) To consider oneself fortunate in some matter.
    I congratulated myself on the success of my plan.

Derived terms

Translations


Italian

Verb

congratulate

  1. inflection of congratulare:
    1. second-person plural present indicative
    2. second-person plural imperative
  2. feminine plural of congratulato

Latin

Participle

congrātulāte

  1. vocative masculine singular of congrātulātus


English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /pɹiːn/
  • Rhymes: -iːn

Etymology 1

From Middle English pren, from Old English prēon, from Proto-Germanic *preunaz (compare Icelandic prjónn (pin, knitting-needle), Danish pryne ‘needle, eel-spear’), from Proto-Indo-European *brewn- (protrusion, tip, edge) (compare Lithuanian briaunà ‘edge’, Albanian brez ‘belt, girdle’).
The verb is from Middle English prenen, from pren (a preen).

Alternative forms

  • prin (dialectal)

Noun

preen (plural preens)

  1. A forked tool used by clothiers for dressing cloth.
  2. (dialectal) pin
    • 1902, John Buchan, The Outgoing of the Tide
      She never seemed to want for siller; the house was as bright as a new preen, the yaird better delved than the manse garden; []
  3. (dialectal) bodkin; brooch

Verb

preen (third-person singular simple present preens, present participle preening, simple past and past participle preened)

  1. (transitive) To pin; fasten.

Etymology 2

Variant of prune (by influence of preen above). Attested in Chaucer (c. 1395) in the variants preyneth, prayneth, proyneth, prunyht, pruneth, from Old French proignier (to trim the feathers with the beak).

Verb

preen (third-person singular simple present preens, present participle preening, simple past and past participle preened)

  1. (of birds) To groom; to trim or dress with the beak, as the feathers.
  2. (of people) To spend time making oneself attractive and admiring one’s appearance, e.g. in front of a mirror.
    Synonyms: primp, smarten up
  3. To show off, posture, or smarm.
  4. (Britain, dialect, dated) To trim up, as trees.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Halliwell to this entry?)
Translations

See also

  • primp

Anagrams

  • neper, perne

Scots

Etymology

From Middle English pren, from Old English prēon, from Proto-Germanic *preunaz (pin, knitting needle).

Noun

preen (plural preens)

  1. metal pin
  2. pine needle

Derived terms

Verb

preen (third-person singular present preens, present participle preenin, past preent, past participle preent)

  1. to pin (fasten with a pin)
  2. to dress oneself up

Spanish

Verb

preen

  1. Second-person plural (ustedes) present subjunctive form of prear.
  2. Third-person plural (ellos, ellas, also used with ustedes?) present subjunctive form of prear.
  3. Second-person plural (ustedes) imperative form of prear.

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