decay vs decline what difference

what is difference between decay and decline

English

Etymology

From Middle English decayen, dekeyen (to decrease, diminish), from Anglo-Norman decaeir (to fall away, decay, decline), from Medieval Latin *dēcadere, restored form of Latin decidere (to fall away, fail, sink, perish), from de (down) + cadere (to fall); compare decadent and decadence.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /dɪˈkeɪ/
  • Rhymes: -eɪ
  • (US) enPR: dē-kāʹ, IPA(key): /di.ˈkeɪ/

Noun

decay (countable and uncountable, plural decays)

  1. The process or result of being gradually decomposed.
  2. A deterioration of condition; loss of status or fortune.
  3. (programming) The situation, in programming languages such as C, where an array loses its type and dimensions and is reduced to a pointer, for example by passing it to a function.

Derived terms

Related terms

  • deciduous

Translations

Verb

decay (third-person singular simple present decays, present participle decaying, simple past and past participle decayed)

  1. (intransitive) To deteriorate, to get worse, to lose strength or health, to decline in quality.
    The pair loved to take pictures in the decaying hospital on forty-third street.
    1. (intransitive, electronics, of storage media or the data on them) To undergo bit rot, that is, gradual degradation.
    2. (intransitive, computing, of software) To undergo software rot, that is, to fail to be updated in a changing environment, so as to eventually become legacy or obsolete.
    3. (intransitive, physics, of a satellite’s orbit) To undergo prolonged reduction in altitude (above the orbited body).
      • 2009, Francis Lyall, Paul B. Larsen, Space Law: A Treatise, page 120:
        Damaged on lift-off, Skylab was left in orbit until its orbit decayed.
  2. (intransitive, of organic material) To rot, to go bad.
    The cat’s body decayed rapidly.
  3. (intransitive, transitive, physics, chemistry, of an unstable atom) To change by undergoing fission, by emitting radiation, or by capturing or losing one or more electrons.
    • 2005, Encyclopedia of Earth Science (edited by Timothy M. Kusky; →ISBN, page 349:
      Uranium decays to radium through a long series of steps with a cumulative half-life of 4.4 billion years.
  4. (intransitive, transitive, physics, of a quantum system) To undergo optical decay, that is, to relax to a less excited state, usually by emitting a photon or phonon.
  5. (intransitive, aviation) Loss of airspeed due to drag.
  6. (transitive) To cause to rot or deteriorate.
    The extreme humidity decayed the wooden sculptures in the museum’s collection in a matter of years.
  7. (programming, intransitive) Of an array: to lose its type and dimensions and be reduced to a pointer, for example when passed to a function.

Translations

Further reading

  • decay in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • decay in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

Anagrams

  • Dacey


English

Etymology

From Middle English declinen, from Old French decliner, from Latin declinare (to bend, turn aside, deflect, inflect, decline), from de (down) + clīnō (I bend, I incline), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (English lean).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /dɪˈklaɪn/
  • Hyphenation: de‧cline
  • Rhymes: -aɪn

Noun

decline (countable and uncountable, plural declines)

  1. Downward movement, fall.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. A sloping downward, e.g. of a hill or road.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. A weakening.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. A reduction or diminution of activity.
  5. The act of declining or refusing something.

Antonyms

  • incline

Translations

Verb

decline (third-person singular simple present declines, present participle declining, simple past and past participle declined)

  1. (intransitive) To move downwards, to fall, to drop.
  2. (intransitive) To become weaker or worse.
  3. (transitive) To bend downward; to bring down; to depress; to cause to bend, or fall.
    • in melancholy site, with head declined
  4. (transitive) To cause to decrease or diminish.
    • You have declin’d his means.
    • He knoweth his error, but will not seek to decline it.
  5. To turn or bend aside; to deviate; to stray; to withdraw.
    a line that declines from straightness
    conduct that declines from sound morals
    • Yet do I not decline from thy testimonies.
  6. (transitive) To choose not to do something; refuse, forbear, refrain.
    • 1626, Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor
      Could I decline this dreadful hour?
  7. (transitive, grammar, usually of substantives, adjectives and pronouns) To inflect for case, number and sometimes gender; more specifically, to recite all the different declined forms of a noun.
    • 1570, Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster (first edition)
      after the first declining of a noun and a verb
  8. (by extension) To run through from first to last; to recite in order as though declining a noun.
  9. (American football, Canadian football) To reject a penalty against the opposing team, usually because the result of accepting it would benefit the non-penalized team less than the preceding play.
    The team chose to decline the fifteen-yard penalty because their receiver had caught the ball for a thirty-yard gain.

Usage notes

  • Decline, refuse, forbear, refrain: Decline is gentler than refuse and carries a connotation that the non-acceptance is an acceptable or anticipated option (decline an invitation) or the result of a considered decision (the judge declined to grant the motion). Refuse has a stronger connotation of rejection, firmness, resistance, or non-compliance. For example, if someone declines to give their name, that suggests they were given a choice and elected not to give their name. If someone refuses to give their name, the connotation is more toward a suggestion that they normally should have given their name and are being intransigent. Forbear or refrain, conversely, suggest choosing not to do something that one might indulge in or be tempted to do (refrain from smoking), with forbear having an added connotation of showing some fortitude in withstanding the temptation (forbear to show anger). Refrain can also be used to refer to a general policy or preference rather than a choice on a single occasion.

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Further reading

  • decline in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • decline in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • decline at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • Delnice

Portuguese

Verb

decline

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of declinar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of declinar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of declinar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of declinar

Romanian

Verb

decline

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive of declina
  2. third-person plural present subjunctive of declina

Spanish

Verb

decline

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of declinar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of declinar.

Please follow and like us:

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Social Share Buttons and Icons powered by Ultimatelysocial