decline vs fall what difference

what is difference between decline and fall

English

Etymology

From Middle English declinen, from Old French decliner, from Latin declinare (to bend, turn aside, deflect, inflect, decline), from de (down) + clīnō (I bend, I incline), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (English lean).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /dɪˈklaɪn/
  • Hyphenation: de‧cline
  • Rhymes: -aɪn

Noun

decline (countable and uncountable, plural declines)

  1. Downward movement, fall.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. A sloping downward, e.g. of a hill or road.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. A weakening.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. A reduction or diminution of activity.
  5. The act of declining or refusing something.

Antonyms

  • incline

Translations

Verb

decline (third-person singular simple present declines, present participle declining, simple past and past participle declined)

  1. (intransitive) To move downwards, to fall, to drop.
  2. (intransitive) To become weaker or worse.
  3. (transitive) To bend downward; to bring down; to depress; to cause to bend, or fall.
    • in melancholy site, with head declined
  4. (transitive) To cause to decrease or diminish.
    • You have declin’d his means.
    • He knoweth his error, but will not seek to decline it.
  5. To turn or bend aside; to deviate; to stray; to withdraw.
    a line that declines from straightness
    conduct that declines from sound morals
    • Yet do I not decline from thy testimonies.
  6. (transitive) To choose not to do something; refuse, forbear, refrain.
    • 1626, Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor
      Could I decline this dreadful hour?
  7. (transitive, grammar, usually of substantives, adjectives and pronouns) To inflect for case, number and sometimes gender; more specifically, to recite all the different declined forms of a noun.
    • 1570, Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster (first edition)
      after the first declining of a noun and a verb
  8. (by extension) To run through from first to last; to recite in order as though declining a noun.
  9. (American football, Canadian football) To reject a penalty against the opposing team, usually because the result of accepting it would benefit the non-penalized team less than the preceding play.
    The team chose to decline the fifteen-yard penalty because their receiver had caught the ball for a thirty-yard gain.

Usage notes

  • Decline, refuse, forbear, refrain: Decline is gentler than refuse and carries a connotation that the non-acceptance is an acceptable or anticipated option (decline an invitation) or the result of a considered decision (the judge declined to grant the motion). Refuse has a stronger connotation of rejection, firmness, resistance, or non-compliance. For example, if someone declines to give their name, that suggests they were given a choice and elected not to give their name. If someone refuses to give their name, the connotation is more toward a suggestion that they normally should have given their name and are being intransigent. Forbear or refrain, conversely, suggest choosing not to do something that one might indulge in or be tempted to do (refrain from smoking), with forbear having an added connotation of showing some fortitude in withstanding the temptation (forbear to show anger). Refrain can also be used to refer to a general policy or preference rather than a choice on a single occasion.

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Further reading

  • decline in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • decline in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • decline at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • Delnice

Portuguese

Verb

decline

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of declinar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of declinar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of declinar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of declinar

Romanian

Verb

decline

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive of declina
  2. third-person plural present subjunctive of declina

Spanish

Verb

decline

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of declinar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of declinar.


English

Etymology 1

Verb from Middle English fallen, from Old English feallan (to fall, fail, decay, die, attack), from Proto-West Germanic *fallan (to fall), from Proto-Germanic *fallaną (to fall), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)pōl-.

Cognate with West Frisian falle (to fall), Low German fallen (to fall), Dutch vallen (to fall), German fallen (to fall), Norwegian Bokmål falle (to fall), Norwegian Nynorsk falla (to fall), Icelandic falla (to fall), Albanian fal (forgive, pray, salute, greet), Lithuanian pùlti (to attack, rush).

Noun from Middle English fal, fall, falle, from Old English feall, ġefeall (a falling, fall), from Proto-Germanic *fallą, *fallaz (a fall, trap), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)pōl-. Cognate with Dutch val, German Fall, Swedish fall, Icelandic fall.

Sense of “autumn” is attested by the 1660s in England as a shortening of Middle English fall of the leaf (1540s), from the falling of leaves during this season. Along with autumn, it mostly replaced the older name harvest as that name began to be associated strictly with the act of harvesting. Compare spring, which began as a shortening of “spring of the leaf”.

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: fôl, IPA(key): /fɔːl/
  • (General American) enPR: fôl, IPA(key): /fɔl/
  • (cotcaught merger) enPR: fäl, IPA(key): /fɑl/
  • Rhymes: -ɔːl

Verb

fall (third-person singular simple present falls, present participle falling, simple past fell or (in archaic sense only) felled, past participle fallen or (in archaic sense only) felled)

  1. (heading, intransitive) To be moved downwards.
    1. To move to a lower position under the effect of gravity.
      • There was a neat hat-and-umbrella stand, and the stranger’s weary feet fell soft on a good, serviceable dark-red drugget, which matched in colour the flock-paper on the walls.
    2. To come down, to drop or descend.
      • 1920, Herman Cyril McNeile, Bulldog Drummond, Ch.1:
        Her eyes fell on the table, and she advanced into the room wiping her hands on her apron.
    3. To come as if by dropping down.
      • 1898, William Le Queux, Whoso Findeth a Wife, page 256:
        Once or twice a noise fell upon his quick ear, and we halted, he standing revolver in hand in an attitude of defense. Each time, however, we ascertained that we had no occasion for alarm, the noise being made by some animal or bird  …
      • 1904, Bram Stoker, The Jewel of Seven Stars, page 248:
        And then a sudden calm fell on us like a cloud of fear. There! on the table, lay the Jewel of Seven Stars, shining and sparkling with lurid light, as though each of the seven points of each of the seven stars gleamed through blood!
      • 1971, Henry Raup Wagner, Spanish Explorations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca:
        Shortly afterwards a breeze came up from the N [] dark clouds closing in over everything. At 3 in the afternoon the breeze came up from the S with a thick drizzle. Thus night fell, and thus we passed the rest of it.
      • 1981, Dan Kirby, Schreiber’s Choice, Ace Books (→ISBN)
        The horse wrangler, a tall, bronzed-face man, waved to the wagon driver. The driver laughed. [] The canvas cover rolled up suddenly and a terrible noise fell over the desert.
    4. To come to the ground deliberately, to prostrate oneself.
    5. To be brought to the ground.
  2. (transitive) To move downwards.
    1. (obsolete) To let fall; to drop.
    2. (obsolete) To sink; to depress.
    3. (Britain, US, dialect, archaic) To fell; to cut down.
  3. (intransitive) To change, often negatively.
    1. (copulative, in idiomatic expressions) To become.
      • At length they stood at the corner from which they had begun, and it had fallen quite dark, and they were no wiser.
      • 1971, Henry Raup Wagner, Spanish Explorations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca:
        Shortly afterwards a breeze came up from the N and then it fell calm, []
    2. (intransitive) To collapse; to be overthrown or defeated.
    3. (intransitive, formal, euphemistic) To die, especially in battle or by disease.
    4. (intransitive) To become lower (in quantity, pitch, etc.).
      • 1612, John Davies, Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued
        The greatness of these Irish lords suddenly fell and vanished.
      • 1835, Sir John Ross, Sir James Clark Ross, Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-west Passage …, Vol.1, pp.284-5:
        Towards the following morning, the thermometer fell to 5°; and at daylight, there was not an atom of water to be seen in any direction.
  4. To occur (on a certain day of the week, date, or similar); to happen.
    • 1978, Dwight David Eisenhower, Mamie Doud Eisenhower, Letters to Mamie, Doubleday Books:
      (Thus D-day fell on June 6 rather than the planned June 5.)
  5. (intransitive) To be allotted to; to arrive through chance, fate, or inheritance.
  6. (transitive, obsolete) To diminish; to lessen or lower.
    • Upon lessening interest to four per cent, you fall the price of your native commodities.
  7. (transitive, obsolete) To bring forth.
  8. (intransitive, obsolete) To issue forth into life; to be brought forth; said of the young of certain animals.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)
  9. (intransitive) To descend in character or reputation; to become degraded; to sink into vice, error, or sin.
    • Let us labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief.
  10. (intransitive) To become ensnared or entrapped; to be worse off than before.
  11. (intransitive) To assume a look of shame or disappointment; to become or appear dejected; said of the face.
    • Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.
    • I have observed of late thy looks are fallen.
  12. (intransitive) To happen; to come to pass; to chance or light (upon).
    • Sit still, my daughter, until thou know how the matter will fall.
    • 1596-97, William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, Act I Scene 2
      [] An the worst fall that ever fell, I hope I shall make shift to go without him.
    • 1879, Herbert Spenser, Principles of Sociology Volume II – Part IV: Ceremonial Institutions
      Primitive men [] do not make laws, they fall into customs.
  13. (intransitive) To begin with haste, ardour, or vehemence; to rush or hurry.
    • 1881, Benjamin Jowett (Thucydides)
      They now no longer doubted, but fell to work heart and soul.
  14. (intransitive) To be dropped or uttered carelessly.
  15. (intransitive, of a fabric) To hang down (under the influence of gravity).
Quotations
  • c. 1591, William Shakespeare, The Tragedie of King Richard the third, Andrew Wiſe (publisher, 1598 — second quarto), Act V, Scene 3:
    Ghoaſt [of Clarence]. [] / To morrow in the battaile thinke on me, / And fall thy edgeleſſe ſword, diſpaire and die.
Synonyms
  • (move to a lower position under the effect of gravity): drop, plummet, plunge
  • (come down): come down, descend, drop
  • (come to the ground deliberately): drop, lower oneself, prostrate oneself
  • (be brought to the ground):
  • (collapse; be overthrown or defeated): be beaten by, be defeated by, be overthrown by, be smitten by, be vanquished by,
  • (die): die
  • (be allotted to): be the responsibility of, be up to
  • (become lower (in quantity, pitch, etc)): dip, drop
  • (become): become, get
  • (cause (something) to descend to the ground): cut down (of a tree), fell, knock down, knock over, strike down
Antonyms
  • (come down): ascend, go up, rise
  • (come to the ground deliberately): get up, pick oneself up, stand up
  • (collapse; be overthrown or defeated): beat, defeat, overthrow, smite, vanquish
  • (become lower (in quantity, pitch, etc)): rise
Coordinate terms
  • topple
  • tumble
Derived terms
Related terms
Translations

Noun

fall (countable and uncountable, plural falls)

  1. The act of moving to a lower position under the effect of gravity.
  2. A reduction in quantity, pitch, etc.
    • “I’m through with all pawn-games,” I laughed. “Come, let us have a game of lansquenet. Either I will take a farewell fall out of you or you will have your sevenfold revenge”.
  3. (chiefly Canada, US, archaic in Britain) The time of the year when the leaves typically fall from the trees; autumn; the season of the year between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice. [from 16th c.]
  4. A loss of greatness or status.
  5. That which falls or cascades.
  6. (sports) A crucial event or circumstance.
    1. (cricket, of a wicket) The action of a batsman being out.
    2. (curling) A defect in the ice which causes stones thrown into an area to drift in a given direction.
    3. (wrestling) An instance of a wrestler being pinned to the mat.
  7. A hairpiece for women consisting of long strands of hair on a woven backing, intended primarily to cover hair loss.
  8. (informal, US) Blame or punishment for a failure or misdeed.
  9. The part of the rope of a tackle to which the power is applied in hoisting (usu. plural).
  10. An old Scots unit of measure equal to six ells.
  11. A short, flexible piece of leather forming part of a bullwhip, placed between the thong and the cracker.
  12. The lid, on a piano, that covers the keyboard
Synonyms
  • (act of moving to a lower position): descent, drop
  • (reduction): decrease, dip, drop, lowering, reduction
  • (season): autumn, (UK dialect) harvest, (UK dialect) back end
  • (loss of greatness or status): downfall
  • (blame; punishment): rap
Antonyms
  • (act of moving to a lower position under the effect of gravity): ascent, rise
  • (reduction): increase, rise
  • (loss of greatness or status): ascent, rise
Derived terms
Related terms
Translations

See also

  • falls

Etymology 2

Perhaps from the north-eastern Scottish pronunciation of whale.

Interjection

fall

  1. (nautical) The cry given when a whale is sighted, or harpooned.

Noun

fall (plural falls)

  1. (nautical) The chasing of a hunted whale.
Derived terms
  • loose fall

Albanian

Etymology

From Turkish fal, from Arabic فَأْل(faʾl, omen).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /faɫ/

Noun

fall m (indefinite plural falle, definite singular falli, definite plural fallet)

  1. fortune telling

Declension

Derived terms

References


Breton

Adjective

fall

  1. bad

Catalan

Etymology

From fallir.

Noun

fall m (plural falls)

  1. cliff

Related terms

  • falla

Further reading

  • “fall” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.

Faroese

Etymology

From Old Norse fall, from falla (to fall). The grammatical sense is a calque of Latin casus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fatl/

Noun

fall n (genitive singular fals, plural føll)

  1. fall, drop
  2. case (linguistics)

Declension


German

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fal/
  • Rhymes: -al

Verb

fall

  1. singular imperative of fallen
  2. (colloquial) first-person singular present of fallen

Icelandic

Etymology

From Old Norse fall, from falla (to fall). The grammatical sense is a calque of Latin casus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fatl/
  • Rhymes: -atl

Noun

fall n (genitive singular falls, nominative plural föll)

  1. fall, drop
  2. (grammar) case
  3. (computing, programming) function; (subprogram, usually with formal parameters, returning a data value when called)
  4. indefinite accusative singular of fall

Declension

Synonyms

  • (function): fallstefja

Derived terms

See also

  • falla (verb)

Norwegian Bokmål

Noun

fall n (definite singular fallet, indefinite plural fall, definite plural falla or fallene)

  1. a fall
  2. case
    i fall – in case
    i alle fall – in any case

Derived terms

Related terms

  • falle (verb)

Verb

fall

  1. imperative of falle

References

  • “fall” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fɑlː/

Noun

fall n (definite singular fallet, indefinite plural fall, definite plural falla)

  1. a fall
  2. case

Derived terms

Verb

fall

  1. past tense of falle
  2. imperative of falle

References

  • “fall” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse fall, from falla (to fall). The grammatical sense is a calque of Latin casus.

Pronunciation

Noun

fall n

  1. a fall (the act of falling)
  2. a fall, loss of greatness or wealth, a bankruptcy
  3. a slope, a waterfall, the height of a slope or waterfall
  4. a (legal) case

Declension

Related terms

Verb

fall

  1. imperative of falla.

References

  • fall in Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL)

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