decline vs wane what difference

what is difference between decline and wane

English

Etymology

From Middle English declinen, from Old French decliner, from Latin declinare (to bend, turn aside, deflect, inflect, decline), from de (down) + clīnō (I bend, I incline), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (English lean).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /dɪˈklaɪn/
  • Hyphenation: de‧cline
  • Rhymes: -aɪn

Noun

decline (countable and uncountable, plural declines)

  1. Downward movement, fall.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  2. A sloping downward, e.g. of a hill or road.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  3. A weakening.(Can we add an example for this sense?)
  4. A reduction or diminution of activity.
  5. The act of declining or refusing something.

Antonyms

  • incline

Translations

Verb

decline (third-person singular simple present declines, present participle declining, simple past and past participle declined)

  1. (intransitive) To move downwards, to fall, to drop.
  2. (intransitive) To become weaker or worse.
  3. (transitive) To bend downward; to bring down; to depress; to cause to bend, or fall.
    • in melancholy site, with head declined
  4. (transitive) To cause to decrease or diminish.
    • You have declin’d his means.
    • He knoweth his error, but will not seek to decline it.
  5. To turn or bend aside; to deviate; to stray; to withdraw.
    a line that declines from straightness
    conduct that declines from sound morals
    • Yet do I not decline from thy testimonies.
  6. (transitive) To choose not to do something; refuse, forbear, refrain.
    • 1626, Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor
      Could I decline this dreadful hour?
  7. (transitive, grammar, usually of substantives, adjectives and pronouns) To inflect for case, number and sometimes gender; more specifically, to recite all the different declined forms of a noun.
    • 1570, Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster (first edition)
      after the first declining of a noun and a verb
  8. (by extension) To run through from first to last; to recite in order as though declining a noun.
  9. (American football, Canadian football) To reject a penalty against the opposing team, usually because the result of accepting it would benefit the non-penalized team less than the preceding play.
    The team chose to decline the fifteen-yard penalty because their receiver had caught the ball for a thirty-yard gain.

Usage notes

  • Decline, refuse, forbear, refrain: Decline is gentler than refuse and carries a connotation that the non-acceptance is an acceptable or anticipated option (decline an invitation) or the result of a considered decision (the judge declined to grant the motion). Refuse has a stronger connotation of rejection, firmness, resistance, or non-compliance. For example, if someone declines to give their name, that suggests they were given a choice and elected not to give their name. If someone refuses to give their name, the connotation is more toward a suggestion that they normally should have given their name and are being intransigent. Forbear or refrain, conversely, suggest choosing not to do something that one might indulge in or be tempted to do (refrain from smoking), with forbear having an added connotation of showing some fortitude in withstanding the temptation (forbear to show anger). Refrain can also be used to refer to a general policy or preference rather than a choice on a single occasion.

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Further reading

  • decline in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • decline in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • decline at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • Delnice

Portuguese

Verb

decline

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of declinar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of declinar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of declinar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of declinar

Romanian

Verb

decline

  1. third-person singular present subjunctive of declina
  2. third-person plural present subjunctive of declina

Spanish

Verb

decline

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of declinar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of declinar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of declinar.


English

Pronunciation

  • (UK, US) IPA(key): /weɪn/
  • Rhymes: -eɪn
  • Homophones: wain, Wayne

Etymology 1

The noun is derived from Old English wana (defect, shortage); the verb from Old English wanian via Middle English wanien. Both ultimately trace to Proto-Germanic *wanōną, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to leave, abandon; empty, deserted), whence also wan-, want, and waste. Compare also Dutch waan (insanity) and German Wahn (insanity) deprecated defect, Old Norse vanr (lacking) ( > Danish prefix van-, only found in compounds), Latin vanus, Gothic ???????????????? (wans, missing, lacking), Albanian vonë (late, futile, mentally retarded), Armenian ունայն (unayn, empty), Old Saxon and Old High German wanon (to decrease), Modern Dutch weinig (a few), Modern German weniger (less), comparative of wenig (few) (-ig being a derivate suffix; -er the suffix of comparatives). Doublet of vain, vaunt, vaniloquent, vast, vacuum, vacant, vacate, which are Latin-derived, via the PIE root.

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. A gradual diminution in power, value, intensity etc.
    • 1853, Herman Melville, “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” in Billy Budd, Sailor and Other Stories, New York: Penguin, 1968; reprinted 1995 as Bartleby, →ISBN, p. 3,
      In the morning, one might say, his face was of a fine florid hue, but after twelve o’clock, meridian — his dinner hour — it blazed like a grate full of Christmas coals; and continued blazing — but, as it were, with a gradual wane — till six o’clock, PM, or thereabouts; after which, I saw no more of the proprietor of the face, […].
    • 1913, Michael Ott, The Catholic Encyclopedia, “Wenzel Anton Kaunitz”,
      His influence which was on the wane during the reign of Joseph II grew still less during the reign of Leopold II (1790-2).
  2. The lunar phase during which the sun seems to illuminate less of the moon as its sunlit area becomes progressively smaller as visible from Earth.
    • 1926, H. P. Lovecraft, “The Moon-Bog”,
      It was very dark, for although the sky was clear the moon was now well in the wane, and would not rise till the small hours.
  3. (literary) The end of a period.
    • 1845, Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil, or The Two Nations, Book 1, Chapter 3,
      The situation of the Venetian party in the wane of the eighteenth century had become extremely critical.
  4. (woodworking) A rounded corner caused by lack of wood, often showing bark.
    • 2002, Peter Ross, Appraisal and Repair of Timber Structures, p. 11,
      Sapwood, or even bark, may appear on the corners, or may have been cut off, resulting in wane, or missing timber.
Usage notes
  • When referring to the moon or a time period, the word is found mostly in prepositional phrases like in or on the wane.
Synonyms
  • (a diminution in power, value, etc.): decrease, decline
Translations

Verb

wane (third-person singular simple present wanes, present participle waning, simple past and past participle waned)

  1. (intransitive) To progressively lose its splendor, value, ardor, power, intensity etc.; to decline.
    • 1668, Sir Josiah Child, A New Discourse of Trade
      Land and trade ever will wax and wane together.
    • 1851, Herman Melville, Moby-Dick, Chapter 118:
      I have sat before the dense coal fire and watched it all aglow, full of its tormented flaming life; and I have seen it wane at last, down, down, to dumbest dust.
    • 1902, John Masefield, “The Golden City of St. Mary”:
      And in the cool twilight when the sea-winds wane []
  2. (intransitive) Said of light that dims or diminishes in strength.
    • 1894, Algernon Charles Swinburne, A Nympholept:
      The skies may hold not the splendour of sundown fast; / It wanes into twilight as dawn dies down into day.
  3. (intransitive, astronomy) Said of the Moon as it passes through the phases of its monthly cycle where its surface is less and less visible.
    • 1866, Sabine Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, “The Man in the Moon”:
      The fall of Jack, and the subsequent fall of Jill, simply represent the vanishing of one moon-spot after another, as the moon wanes.
  4. (intransitive) Said of a time period that comes to an end.
    • 1894, Algernon Charles Swinburne, “A Swimmer’s Dream”:
      Fast as autumn days toward winter: yet it seems//Here that autumn wanes not, here that woods and streams
  5. (intransitive, archaic) To decrease physically in size, amount, numbers or surface.
    • 1815, Walter Scott, Guy Mannering, chapter XIX:
      The snow which had been for some time waning, had given way entirely under the fresh gale of the preceding night.
  6. (transitive, obsolete) To cause to decrease.
    • 1610, Ben Jonson, The Speeches at Prince Henry’s Barriers
      In which no lustful finger can profane him,
      Nor any earth with black eclipses wane him
    • 1797, Anna Seward, Letter to Mrs Childers of Yorkshire:
      Proud once and princely was the mansion, ere a succession of spendthrifts waned away its splendour.
Antonyms
  • wax
Derived terms
  • wax and wane
Translations

Etymology 2

From Scots wean.

Alternative forms

  • wain, waine, wean

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. (Scotland, slang) A child.

Etymology 3

From Middle English wōne, wāne (dwelling,” “custom), of unclear origins, compare wont.

Alternative forms

  • wone (Southern England)

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. (chiefly Northern England and Scotland, obsolete) A house or dwelling.

Anagrams

  • Ewan, Newa, anew, wean

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈʋaː.nə/
  • Hyphenation: wa‧ne

Etymology 1

Uncertain. Compare Sranan Tongo wana.

Noun

wane c (uncountable)

  1. (Surinam) A type of South American tree that produces hardwood, Sextonia rubra.

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

wane

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of wanen

Middle Dutch

Verb

wâne

  1. inflection of wânen:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. first/third-person singular present subjunctive

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English wana, wona (noun) and wan, won (noun), related to wanian (to diminish).

Noun

wane (uncountable)

  1. penury, deprivation, neediness
  2. lack, absence
  3. diminution
Alternative forms
  • wan, won, wone; wain (Northern)
Descendants
  • English: wane
  • Scots: wane, waine

References

  • “wāne, n.(1).”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.

Etymology 2

Probably from Old English wēan or wēana, oblique cases of wēa (woe, grief, misery).

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. woeful, miserable state; adversity; misfortune
  2. affliction, tribulation
  3. destruction
Alternative forms
  • wan, won, wone
  • weane, wæn, wæne, wæine, wen, wene (early, southwest Midlands)
Descendants
  • English: wane

References

  • “wāne, n.(2).”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.

Etymology 3

From Old English wana, wona (adjective) and wan, won (adjective), related to wanian (to diminish).

Adjective

wane

  1. inadequate, incomplete, imperfect
  2. lacking, missing, absent
Alternative forms
  • wan, wanne, wone, won, vane
Descendants
  • English: wane
  • Scots: wan, wane

References

  • “wāne, adj.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.

Etymology 4

Noun

wane (uncountable)

  1. (Northern) Alternative form of vein

Etymology 5

Adverb

wane

  1. Alternative form of fain

Etymology 6

Adjective

wane

  1. Alternative form of wan

Etymology 7

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. (Northern, early) Alternative form of wone (dwelling)

Etymology 8

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. (Northern) Alternative form of wone (course)

Etymology 9

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. Alternative form of wain (wagon)

Etymology 10

Noun

wane (plural wanes)

  1. Alternative form of veine (vein)

Etymology 11

Verb

wane (third-person singular simple present waneth, present participle wanende, wanynge, first-/third-person singular past indicative and past participle waned)

  1. Alternative form of wanen

Etymology 12

Adverb

wane

  1. Alternative form of whenne

Conjunction

wane

  1. Alternative form of whenne

Etymology 13

Verb

wane

  1. Alternative form of wanne: singular simple past of winnen
  2. Alternative form of wonnen: plural simple past of winnen

Etymology 14

Adverb

wane

  1. Alternative form of whanne

Conjunction

wane

  1. Alternative form of whanne

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