Deduce vs Infer what difference

what is difference between Deduce and Infer

English

Etymology

From Late Middle English deducen (to demonstrate, prove, show; to argue, infer; to bring, lead; to turn (something) to a use; to deduct), borrowed from Latin dēdūcere, the present active infinitive of dēdūcō (to lead or bring out or away; to accompany, conduct, escort; (figuratively) to derive, discover, deduce); from dē- (prefix meaning ‘from, away from’) + dūcere (the present active infinitive of dūcō (to conduct, guide, lead; to draw, pull; to consider, regard, think), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dewk- (to lead; to draw, pull)).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /dɪˈdjuːs/, IPA(key): /dɪˈdʒuːs/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /dɪˈd(j)us/, /də-/
  • Rhymes: -uːs
  • Hyphenation: de‧duce

Verb

deduce (third-person singular simple present deduces, present participle deducing, simple past and past participle deduced)

  1. (transitive) To reach (a conclusion) by applying rules of logic or other forms of reasoning to given premises or known facts.
    Synonyms: conclude, infer
    Antonym: induce
  2. (transitive) To examine, explain, or record (something) in an orderly manner.
  3. (transitive, archaic) To obtain (something) from some source; to derive.
  4. (intransitive, archaic) To be derived or obtained from some source.
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To take away (something); to deduct, to subtract (something).
  6. (transitive, obsolete, based on the word’s Latin etymon) To lead (something) forth.

Usage notes

  • Regarding sense 1 (“to reach (a conclusion)”), for example, from the premises “all good people believe in the tooth fairy” and “Jimmy does not believe in the tooth fairy”, we deduce the conclusion “Jimmy is not a good person”. This particular form of deduction is called a syllogism. Note that in this case we reach a false conclusion by correct deduction from a false premise.

Conjugation

Alternative forms

  • diduce (obsolete)

Derived terms

  • deducement (obsolete)
  • deducing (noun)
  • deducive (rare)

Related terms

Translations

References

Further reading

  • deductive reasoning on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Anagrams

  • deuced, educed

Italian

Verb

deduce

  1. third-person singular indicative present of dedurre

Latin

Verb

dēdūce

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of dēdūcō

Romanian

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin deducere, French déduire, with conjugation based on duce.

Verb

a deduce (third-person singular present deduce, past participle dedus3rd conj.

  1. (transitive) to infer, deduce (to conclude by reasoning or deduction, as from premises or evidence)

Conjugation


Spanish

Verb

deduce

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of deducir.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of deducir.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of deducir.


English

Etymology

From Latin inferō, from Latin in- (in, at, on; into) + Latin ferō (bear, carry; suffer) (cognate to Old English beran, whence English bear), from Proto-Italic *ferō, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to bear, carry), from the root *bʰer-. Literally “carry forward”, equivalent to “bear in”, as in concluding from a premise.

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ɪnˈfɝ/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ɪnˈfɜː/
  • Rhymes: -ɜː(ɹ)

Verb

infer (third-person singular simple present infers, present participle inferring, simple past and past participle inferred)

  1. (transitive) To introduce (something) as a reasoned conclusion; to conclude by reasoning or deduction, as from premises or evidence. [from 16th c.]
    • 2010, “Keep calm, but don’t carry on”, The Economist, 7 Oct 2010:
      It is dangerous to infer too much from martial bluster in British politics: at the first hint of trouble, channelling Churchill is a default tactic for beleaguered leaders of all sorts.
  2. (transitive) To lead to (something) as a consequence; to imply. (Now often considered incorrect, especially with a person as subject.) [from 16th c.]
    • a. 1535, Thomas More, letter to Fryth
      the fyrste parte is not the proofe of the second. but rather contrarywyse the seconde inferreth well yͤ fyrst.
  3. (obsolete) To cause, inflict (something) upon or to someone. [16th-18th c.]
    • 1596, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, VI.8:
      faire Serena [] fled fast away, afeard / Of villany to be to her inferd [].
  4. (obsolete) To introduce (a subject) in speaking, writing etc.; to bring in. [16th–18th c.]

Usage notes

There are two ways in which the word “infer” is sometimes used as if it meant “imply”. “Implication” is done by a person when making a “statement”, whereas “inference” is done to a proposition after it had already been made or assumed. Secondly, the word “infer” can sometimes be used to mean “allude” or “express” in a suggestive manner rather than as a direct “statement”. Using the word “infer” in this sense is now generally considered incorrect. [1] [2]

Synonyms

  • assume, conclude, deduce, educe, construe

Related terms

  • inferable
  • inference
  • illative
  • illation
  • -ferous (-iferous)

Translations

Anagrams

  • -frine, Finer, finer, frine

Latin

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈin.fer/, [ˈĩːfɛr]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈin.fer/, [ˈinfɛr]

Verb

īnfer

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of īnferō

References

  • infer in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • infer in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette

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