defy vs refuse what difference

what is difference between defy and refuse

English

Etymology

From Old French desfier, from Vulgar Latin *disfidare (renounce one’s faith), from Latin dis- (away) + fidus (faithful). Meaning shifted in the 14th century from “be disloyal” to “challenge”. Contrast confide, fidelity, faith.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /dɪˈfaɪ/
  • Rhymes: -aɪ

Verb

defy (third-person singular simple present defies, present participle defying, simple past and past participle defied)

  1. (transitive) To challenge (someone) or brave (a hazard or opposition).
    • 1671, John Milton, Samson Agonistes
      I once again / Defie thee to the trial of mortal fight.
    • 1900, Edith King Hall, Adventures in Toyland Chapter 6
      “So you actually think yours is good-looking?” sneered the Baker. “Why, I could make a better-looking one out of a piece of dough.”
      “I defy you to,” the Hansom-driver replied. “A face like mine is not easily copied. Nor am I the only person of that opinion. All the ladies think that I am beautiful. And of course I go by what they think.”
  2. (transitive) To refuse to obey.
    • 2005, George W. Bush, Presidential Radio Address – 19 March 2005
      Before coalition forces arrived, Iraq was ruled by a dictatorship that murdered its own citizens, threatened its neighbors, and defied the world.
  3. To not conform to or follow a pattern, set of rules or expectations.
    • 1955, Anonymous, The Urantia Book Paper 41
      By tossing this nineteenth electron back and forth between its own orbit and that of its lost companion more than twenty-five thousand times a second, a mutilated stone atom is able partially to defy gravity and thus successfully to ride the emerging streams of light and energy, the sunbeams, to liberty and adventure.
    • 2013, Jeré Longman in the New York Times, W.N.B.A. Hopes Griner Can Change Perceptions, as Well as Game Itself
      “To be determined,” Kane said, “is whether Griner and her towering skill and engaging personality will defy the odds and attract corporate sponsors as part of widespread public acceptance four decades after passage of the gender-equity legislation known as Title IX.”
  4. (transitive, obsolete) To renounce or dissolve all bonds of affiance, faith, or obligation with; to reject, refuse, or renounce.
    • 1603-1625, Beaumont and Fletcher
      For thee I have defied my constant mistress.

Derived terms

  • death-defying

Related terms

  • defiance
  • defiant

Translations

Noun

defy (plural defies)

  1. (obsolete) A challenge.
    • And, safe intrench’d within, her foes without defies

Translations

Anagrams

  • yfed


English

Etymology 1

Borrowed into late Middle English from Middle French refusé, past participle of refuser (to refuse).

Pronunciation

  • enPR: rĕfʹyo͞os, IPA(key): /ˈɹɛfjuːs/

Adjective

refuse (comparative more refuse, superlative most refuse)

  1. Discarded, rejected.

Noun

refuse (uncountable)

  1. Collectively, items or material that have been discarded; rubbish, garbage.
Synonyms
  • discards
  • garbage (US)
  • rubbish (UK)
  • trash (US)
  • See also Thesaurus:trash
Translations

Etymology 2

From Old French refuser, from Vulgar Latin *refusare, a blend of Classical Latin refutō and recusō.

Pronunciation

  • enPR: rĭfyo͞ozʹ, IPA(key): /ɹɪˈfjuːz/
  • Rhymes: -uːz

Verb

refuse (third-person singular simple present refuses, present participle refusing, simple past and past participle refused)

  1. (transitive) To decline (a request or demand).
  2. (intransitive) To decline a request or demand, forbear; to withhold permission.
  3. (military) To throw back, or cause to keep back (as the centre, a wing, or a flank), out of the regular alignment when troops are about to engage the enemy.
  4. (obsolete, transitive) To disown.
Usage notes
  • This is a catenative verb that takes the to infinitive. See Appendix:English catenative verbs
Synonyms
  • (decline): decline, reject, nill, say no to, turn down, veto, withsake, withsay
  • (decline a request or demand): say no, forbear
Translations

Noun

refuse

  1. (obsolete) refusal

Etymology 3

re- +‎ fuse

Pronunciation

  • enPR: rēfyo͞ozʹ, IPA(key): /ɹiːˈfjuːz/
  • Rhymes: -uːz

Verb

refuse (third-person singular simple present refuses, present participle refusing, simple past and past participle refused)

  1. To melt again.
Related terms
  • refusion

French

Pronunciation

Verb

refuse

  1. inflection of refuser:
    1. first/third-person singular present indicative/subjunctive
    2. second-person singular imperative

Anagrams

  • férues

Latin

Participle

refūse

  1. vocative masculine singular of refūsus

References

  • refuse in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press

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