entropy vs information what difference

what is difference between entropy and information

English

Etymology

First attested in 1867, as the translation of German Entropie, coined in 1865 by Rudolph Clausius in analogy to Energie (energy), replacing the root of Ancient Greek ἔργον (érgon, work) by Ancient Greek τροπή (tropḗ, transformation)).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛntɹəpi/

Noun

entropy (countable and uncountable, plural entropies)

  1. A measure of the disorder present in a system.
    Ludwig Boltzmann defined entropy as being directly proportional to the natural logarithm of the number of microstates yielding an equivalent thermodynamic macrostate (with the eponymous constant of proportionality). Assuming (by the fundamental postulate of statistical mechanics), that all microstates are equally probable, this means, on the one hand, that macrostates with higher entropy are more probable, and on the other hand, that for such macrostates, the quantity of information required to describe a particular one of its microstates will be higher. That is, the Shannon entropy of a macrostate would be directly proportional to the logarithm of the number of equivalent microstates (making it up). In other words, thermodynamic and informational entropies are rather compatible, which shouldn’t be surprising since Claude Shannon derived the notation ‘H’ for information entropy from Boltzmann’s H-theorem.
  2. (thermodynamics, countable) strictly thermodynamic entropy. A measure of the amount of energy in a physical system that cannot be used to do work.
    The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform; it is the internal energy of a system minus the amount of energy that cannot be used to perform work. That unusable energy is given by the entropy of a system multiplied by the temperature of the system.[1] (Note that, for both Gibbs and Helmholtz free energies, temperature is assumed to be fixed, so entropy is effectively directly proportional to useless energy.)
  3. The capacity factor for thermal energy that is hidden with respect to temperature [2].
  4. The dispersal of energy; how much energy is spread out in a process, or how widely spread out it becomes, at a specific temperature. [3]
  5. (statistics, information theory, countable) A measure of the amount of information and noise present in a signal.
  6. (uncountable) The tendency of a system that is left to itself to descend into chaos.

Synonyms

  • anergy
  • bound entropy
  • disgregation

Antonyms

  • aggregation
  • exergy
  • free entropy
  • negentropy

Derived terms

See also

  • chaos

Translations

Further reading

  • entropy in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • entropy in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • entropy at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • Poynter, peryton


English

Etymology

From Middle English informacion, enformacion, borrowed from Anglo-Norman informacioun, enformation, Old French information, from Latin īnfōrmātiō (formation, conception; education), from the participle stem of īnformāre (to inform). Compare West Frisian ynformaasje (information), Dutch informatie (information), German Information (information), Danish information (information), Swedish information (information), Norwegian informasjon (information).
Morphologically inform +‎ -ation

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃən/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˌɪnfɚˈmeɪʃən/
  • Rhymes: -eɪʃən

Noun

information (usually uncountable, plural informations)

  1. That which resolves uncertainty; anything that answers the question of “what a given entity is”.
  2. Things that are or can be known about a given topic; communicable knowledge of something. [from 14th c.]
  3. The act of informing or imparting knowledge; notification. [from 14th c.]
  4. (law, countable) A statement of criminal activity brought before a judge or magistrate; in the UK, used to inform a magistrate of an offence and request a warrant; in the US, an accusation brought before a judge without a grand jury indictment. [from 15th c.]
    • 1968, Carl B. Cone, The English Jacobins, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, p. 131:
      On May 21, 1792, the Attorney General filed an information against Paine charging him with seditious libel.
  5. (obsolete) The act of informing against someone, passing on incriminating knowledge; accusation. [14th-17th c.]
  6. (now rare) The systematic imparting of knowledge; education, training. [from 14th c.]
  7. (now rare) The creation of form; the imparting of a given quality or characteristic; forming, animation. [from 17th c.]
  8. (computing, formally) […] the meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in its representation.
  9. (Christianity) Divine inspiration. [from 15th c.]
  10. A service provided by telephone which provides listed telephone numbers of a subscriber. [from 20th c.]
  11. (information theory) Any unambiguous abstract data, the smallest possible unit being the bit. [from 20th c.]
  12. As contrasted with data, information is processed to extract relevant data. [from late 20th c.]
  13. (information technology) Any ordered sequence of symbols (or signals) (that could contain a message). [from late 20th c.]

Usage notes

  • The definition of information in the computing context is from an international standard vocabulary which, though formally accepted, is largely ignored by the computing profession.

Hyponyms

Derived terms

Pages starting with “information”.

Related terms

Translations

Further reading

  • information on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
  • information at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • information in Keywords for Today: A 21st Century Vocabulary, edited by The Keywords Project, Colin MacCabe, Holly Yanacek, 2018.
  • information in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

References


Danish

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin informatiō, informatiōnis.

Noun

information c (singular definite informationen, plural indefinite informationer)

  1. (a piece of) information.

Inflection

Derived terms

  • kontaktinformation

French

Etymology

From Old French, borrowed from Latin informatiō, informatiōnem.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛ̃.fɔʁ.ma.sjɔ̃/

Noun

information f (plural informations)

  1. (countable) piece of information; datum
    Cette information nous est parvenue hier soir.
  2. (plural only) news
    Tous les jours, il regarde la télé le midi pour suivre les informations.
  3. (uncountable) information
    Théorie de l’information.

Synonyms

  • (piece of information): donnée, nouvelle
  • (news): nouvelles
  • (information): renseignement

Derived terms

  • autoroute de l’information
  • lettre d’information
  • relevé d’informations
  • société de l’information

Related terms

  • informateur, infomatrice
  • informaticien
  • informatif
  • informationnel
  • informatique
  • informatiser
  • informer

Further reading

  • “information” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Swedish

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin informatiō, informatiōnis.

Pronunciation

Noun

information c

  1. information

Declension

Related terms

  • info
  • informant
  • informationsavdelning
  • informatör
  • informera
  • turistinformation

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