exculpation vs excuse what difference

what is difference between exculpation and excuse

English

Pronunciation

  • Rhymes: -eɪʃən

Noun

exculpation (countable and uncountable, plural exculpations)

  1. The act of exculpating from alleged fault or crime.
  2. That which exculpates; an excuse.

Translations



English

Etymology

From Middle English excusen (verb) and excuse (noun), borrowed from Old French escuser (verb) and excuse (noun), from Latin excūsō, excūsāre (to excuse, allege in excuse, literally, free from a charge), from ex (out) + causa (a charge); see cause, accuse and recuse. Displaced native Old English lādian (to excuse) and lādung (an excuse).

Pronunciation

Verb
  • (UK) enPR: ĭkskyo͞oz’, IPA(key): /ɪkˈskjuːz/, /ɛksˈkjuːz/
  • (US) enPR: ĭkskyo͞oz’, IPA(key): /ɪksˈkjuz/, /ɛksˈkjuz/
  • Rhymes: -uːz
Noun
  • (UK) enPR: ĭkskyo͞os’, IPA(key): /ɪkˈskjuːs/, /ɛksˈkjuːs/
  • (US) enPR: ĭkskyo͞os’, IPA(key): /ɪksˈkjus/, /ɛksˈkjus/
  • Rhymes: -uːs

Verb

excuse (third-person singular simple present excuses, present participle excusing, simple past and past participle excused)

  1. (transitive) To forgive; to pardon.
    • c. 1685, John Sharp, A Discourse of Conscience
      If they say that he did sin in doing this, then they must at the same time acknowledge that a man’s persuasion that a thing is a duty will not excuse him from guilt in practising it
  2. (transitive) To allow to leave, or release from any obligation.
  3. (transitive) To provide an excuse for; to explain, with the aim of alleviating guilt or negative judgement.
  4. To relieve of an imputation by apology or defense; to make apology for as not seriously evil; to ask pardon or indulgence for.
    • Think ye that we excuse ourselves to you?

Synonyms

  • (to release from guilt, shame, or punishment): forgive, let off the hook, let pass, pardon, unguilt

Antonyms

  • (to release from guilt, shame, or punishment): blame, punish

Derived terms

  • ‘scuse
  • excuse me
  • excuse my French
  • XQs

Translations

Noun

excuse (countable and uncountable, plural excuses)

  1. (countable, uncountable) Explanation designed to avoid or alleviate guilt or negative judgment; a plea offered in extenuation of a fault.
    • 1604-11, Bible (King James Version), Luke: XIV:18
      And they all with one consent began to make excuse.
  2. (law) A defense to a criminal or civil charge wherein the accused party admits to doing acts for which legal consequences would normally be appropriate, but asserts that special circumstances relieve that party of culpability for having done those acts.
  3. (with preceding negative adjective, especially sorry, poor or lame) An example of something that is substandard or of inferior quality.

Usage notes

  • We often say to make an excuse.

Synonyms

  • (explanation designed to avoid or alleviate guilt or negative judgment): pretext release, clear, justify, forgive, tolerate, overlook, exempt, pardon, discharge, pretext, bear with, acquit, exonerate, absolve, pretense, vindicate.

Translations

Further reading

  • excuse in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • excuse in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

French

Etymology

From excuser.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɛk.skyz/
  • (Colloquial) IPA(key): /ɛs.skyz/

Noun

excuse f (plural excuses)

  1. excuse

Verb

excuse

  1. first-person singular present indicative of excuser
  2. third-person singular present indicative of excuser
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of excuser
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of excuser
  5. second-person singular imperative of excuser

Further reading

  • “excuse” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Latin

Participle

excūse

  1. vocative masculine singular of excūsus

Spanish

Verb

excuse

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of excusar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of excusar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of excusar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of excusar.

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