extra vs surplus what difference

what is difference between extra and surplus

English

Etymology

Abbreviation of extraordinary.

Pronunciation

  • (UK, US) IPA(key): /ˈɛkstɹə/
  • Hyphenation: ex‧tra

Adjective

extra (not comparable)

  1. Beyond what is due, usual, expected, or necessary; extraneous; additional; supernumerary.
  2. (dated) Extraordinarily good; superior.
  3. (slang) Over the top; going beyond what is normal or appropriate, often in a dramatic manner.
    • 2017, Yael Livnch, “Whole Foods”, in “Get The Inside Soup: Staffers Review Local Soup Stops”, 3 February 2017, page 23:
      I highly recommend getting some more bread on the side—they offer small loaves and soup crackers for free, but I’m so extra, I bought my own loaf.
    • 2017, Claire Craig, “#Instabeauty”, Northern Woman, November 2017, page 48:
      Shattered glass, pierced, bejewelled, chromed and glittered – nails are going totally extra on Insta at the minute and we approve.
    • 2019, Michelle Spottswood, quoted in Kirby Myers, “Does Christmas in your house start before or after Thanksgiving”, Key West Weekly, 21 November 2019, page 7:
      Two months of Christmas trees, Christmas movies and Christmas music brings so much fun to our home, we are so extra with it!
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:extra.

Derived terms

  • extraness

Translations

Adverb

extra (not comparable)

  1. (informal) To an extraordinary degree.

Translations

Noun

extra (plural extras)

  1. Something additional, such as an item above and beyond the ordinary school curriculum, or added to the usual charge on a bill.
    Synonyms: addition, supplement
  2. An extra edition of a newspaper, which is printed outside of the normal printing cycle.
  3. (cricket) A run scored without the ball having hit the striker’s bat – a wide, bye, leg bye or no ball.
    Synonym: sundry
  4. (acting) A supernumerary or walk-on in a film or play.
  5. Something of an extra quality or grade. (Can we add an example for this sense?)

Synonyms

  • (something additional): See also Thesaurus:adjunct

Derived terms

  • wuxtry

Translations

Derived terms

  • extra credit
  • Romsey Extra
  • sextra

Anagrams

  • Artex, retax, taxer

Dutch

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin extra, influenced by French and Middle French extraordinaire.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛks.traː/
  • Hyphenation: extra

Adverb

extra

  1. extra

Adjective

extra (not comparable)

  1. extra
  2. (Limburg) on purpose

Inflection

Descendants

  • Indonesian: ekstra

Noun

extra m (plural extra’s, diminutive extraatje n)

  1. something extra, something in addition

See also

  • expres

French

Adjective

extra (plural extras)

  1. extra, additional
  2. great, super, famous

Noun

extra m or f (plural extras)

  1. extra, supplement

German

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛks.tʁa/

Adjective

extra (not comparable)

  1. (colloquial) Alternative form of extra- (extra, special, additional)

Usage notes

  • In formal standard German, extra- is a prefix attached to the following noun. In colloquial German, however, it is often treated like a real adjective. The substantival (or partitive) form used with indefinite pronouns may also take -s: was Extras (“something additional, something on top”).

Adverb

extra

  1. specifically (for a given purpose)
    Synonym: eigens
  2. (colloquial) on purpose
    Synonyms: absichtlich, mit Absicht
  3. (colloquial) aside, apart, separately
    Synonyms: einzeln, getrennt, separat
  4. (colloquial) particularly, very
    Synonyms: besonders, sehr

Usage notes

  • In the sense of “specifically”, extra has entered the standard language and is now frequently seen in writing. The other senses remain colloquial.

Hungarian

Etymology

From German extra, from Latin extra.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈɛkstrɒ]
  • Hyphenation: ext‧ra
  • Rhymes: -rɒ

Adjective

extra (comparative extrább, superlative legextrább)

  1. extra (beyond what is due, usual, expected, or necessary; extraneous; additional)

Declension

Noun

extra (plural extrák)

  1. luxury features (e.g. in vehicles)

Declension

References


Ido

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ekstra/, /eɡztra/

Adjective

extra

  1. extra

Italian

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɛks.tra/, /ˈɛs.tra/

Adjective

extra (invariable)

  1. extra
  2. select (best quality)

Noun

extra m (invariable)

  1. extra (something additional)

Preposition

extra

  1. outside of, aside from, not including

References


Latin

Etymology

Adverb contracted from the ablative exterā (parte), of exter.

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈek.straː/, [ˈɛks̠(t̪)ɾäː]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈek.stra/, [ˈɛkst̪rɑ]

Preposition

extrā (+ accusative)

  1. outside of
  2. beyond

Derived terms

Descendants

References

  • extra in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • extra in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • extra in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
  • extra in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • Meyer-Lübke, Wilhelm (1911), “extra”, in Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), page 232
  • von Wartburg, Walther (1928–2002), “extra”, in Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (in German), volume 30, page 330

Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • (Brazil) IPA(key): /ˈes.tɾɐ/

Adjective

extra m or f (plural extras, comparable)

  1. extra (beyond what is due, usual, expected or necessary)
    Synonym: adicional

Noun

extra m (plural extras)

  1. anything that is extra
  2. bonus (extra amount of money given as a premium)
    Synonym: bónus

Noun

extra m, f (plural extras)

  1. (film) extra; walk-on (actor in a small role with no dialogue)
    Synonym: figurante

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈekstɾa/, [ˈeks.t̪ɾa]

Adjective

extra (plural extras)

  1. additional, extra
  2. superior
  3. extraordinary
    Synonym: extraordinario

Derived terms

  • horas extras

Noun

extra m or f (plural extras)

  1. extra (in a film)

Swedish

Pronunciation

Adjective

extra

  1. extra

Related terms

Adverb

extra

  1. extra


English

Etymology

From Middle English surplus, from Middle French surplus. Compare French surplus.

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈsɝˌplʌs/, /ˈsɝpləs/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈsɜːpləs/
  • Hyphenation: sur‧plus

Noun

surplus (countable and uncountable, plural surpluses or surplusses)

  1. That which remains when use or need is satisfied, or when a limit is reached; excess; overplus.
  2. Specifically, an amount in the public treasury at any time greater than is required for the ordinary purposes of the government.
  3. (law) The remainder of a fund appropriated for a particular purpose.
  4. (law) assets left after liabilities and debts, including capital stock have been deducted.

Synonyms

  • oversum

Antonyms

  • lack
  • deficit
  • shortage

Translations

Adjective

surplus (not comparable)

  1. Being or constituting a surplus; more than sufficient.
    • 1953, Samuel Beckett, Watt
      But to return to where we left her, I see her still, propped up in a kind of stupor against one of the walls in which this wretched edifice abounds, her long grey greasy hair framing in its cowl of scrofulous mats a face where pallor, languor, hunger, acne, recent dirt, immemorial chagrin and surplus hair seemed to dispute the mastery.

Translations

Verb

surplus (third-person singular simple present surpluses or surplusses, present participle surplussing or surplusing, simple past and past participle surplussed or surplused)

  1. (transitive) To treat as surplus to requirements; to sell off or dismiss from employment, etc.
    • 1952, United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations, Moroccan air base construction. 2 v (page 618)
      This employee was engaged to direct asphalt plants and inasmuch as the work for which he had been employed was completed, he was surplused and his return travel was approved []

Anagrams

  • upslurs

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch surplus, from Middle French surplus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈsʏr.plʏs/
  • Hyphenation: sur‧plus

Noun

surplus n (plural surplussen, diminutive surplusje n)

  1. A surplus value, notably of money.
    Synonym: overschot
    Antonym: tekort
  2. A remaining quantity, notably stock excess.
    Synonyms: restant, overschot

Derived terms

  • surplusgoederen
  • surplusvoorraad

French

Etymology

From Middle French surplus, from Old French sorplus. Equivalent to sur- +‎ plus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /syʁ.ply/

Noun

surplus m (plural surplus)

  1. A surplus.
Derived terms

Descendants

  • Italian: surplus

Further reading

  • “surplus” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Italian

Etymology

Borrowed from French surplus.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /surˈplus/, /ˈsur.plus/

Noun

surplus m (invariable)

  1. a surplus (all senses)

References


Romanian

Etymology

From French surplus.

Noun

surplus n (plural surplusuri)

  1. surplus

Declension


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