fast vs fasting what difference

what is difference between fast and fasting

English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation, General Australian, General New Zealand, General South African) enPR: fäst, IPA(key): /fɑːst/
  • Rhymes: -ɑːst
  • (General American, Northern England) enPR: făst, IPA(key): /fæst/
  • Rhymes: -æst

Etymology 1

From Middle English fast, from Old English fæst (fast, fixed, firm, secure; constant, steadfast; stiff, heavy, dense; obstinate, bound, costive; enclosed, closed, watertight; strong, fortified), from Proto-Germanic *fastaz, *fastijaz, *fastuz (fast, firm, secure); see it for cognates and further etymology.

The development of “rapid” from an original sense of “secure” apparently happened first in the adverb and then transferred to the adjective; compare hard in expressions like “to run hard”. The original sense of “secure, firm” is now slightly archaic, but retained in the related fasten (make secure).

Adjective

fast (comparative faster, superlative fastest)

  1. (dated) Firmly or securely fixed in place; stable. [from 9th c.]
    Synonyms: firm, immobile, secure, stable, stuck, tight
    Antonym: loose
    Hyponyms: bedfast, chairfast, colorfast, fail-fast, lightfast, shamefast, soothfast, steadfast
  2. Firm against attack; fortified by nature or art; impregnable; strong.
    • out-lawes [] lurking in woods and fast places
    Synonyms: fortified, impenetrable
    Antonyms: penetrable, weak
  3. (of people) Steadfast, with unwavering feeling. (Now mostly in set phrases like fast friend(s).) [from 10th c.]
    • 1933, Will Hudson, Irving Mills and Eddy DeLange, “Moonglow”
      I still hear you sayin’, “Dear one, hold me fast
  4. Moving with great speed, or capable of doing so; swift, rapid. [from 14th c.]
    Synonyms: quick, rapid, speedy
    1. (nuclear physics, of a neutron) Having a kinetic energy between 1 million and 20 million electron volts; often used to describe the energy state of free neutrons at the moment of their release by a nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reaction (i.e., before the neutrons have been slowed down by anything).
  5. Of a place, characterised by business, hustle and bustle, etc.
  6. Causing unusual rapidity of play or action.
  7. (computing, of a piece of hardware) Able to transfer data in a short period of time.
  8. Deep or sound (of sleep); fast asleep (of people). [16th-19th c.]
    • c. 1606, William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act V, scene 1:
      Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her nightgown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon’t, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return to bed; yet all this while in a most fast sleep.
    Synonyms: deep, sound
    Antonym: light
  9. (of dyes or colours) Not running or fading when subjected to detrimental conditions such as wetness or intense light; permanent. [from 17th c.]
    Synonym: colour-fast
  10. (obsolete) Tenacious; retentive.
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, Of Gardens
      Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells.
  11. (dated) Having an extravagant lifestyle or immoral habits. [from 18th c.]
    • 1852, John Swaby, Physiology of the Opera (page 74)
      [] we remember once hearing a fast man suggest that they were evidently “nobs who had overdrawn the badger by driving fast cattle, and going it high” — the exact signification of which words we did not understand []
    • 1979, Doug Fieger, “Good Girls Don’t”:
      You’re alone with her at last / And you’re waiting ’til you think the time is right / Cause you’ve heard she’s pretty fast / And you’re hoping that she’ll give you some tonight.
  12. Ahead of the correct time or schedule. [from 19th c.]
    Synonyms: ahead, (as in “the clock is gaining x minutes per hour/day”) gain
    Antonyms: behind, slow
  13. (of photographic film) More sensitive to light than average. [from 20th c.]
Usage notes

In the context of nuclear reactors or weaponry, fission-spectrum neutrons (neutrons with the spectrum of energies produced by nuclear fission) are frequently referred to as fast neutrons, even though the majority of fission-spectrum neutrons have energies below the 1-million-electron-volt cutoff.

Synonyms
  • (occurring or happening within a short time): quick, rapid, speedy, swift
  • (capable of moving with great speed): see also Thesaurus:speedy
  • (rapidly consents to sexual activity): easy, slutty; see also Thesaurus:promiscuous
  • (firmly or securely fixed in place): see also Thesaurus:tight
Antonyms
  • (occurring or happening within a short time): slow
Derived terms
Related terms
Translations

Adverb

fast (comparative faster, superlative fastest)

  1. In a firm or secure manner, securely; in such a way as not to be moved; safe, sound [from 10th c.].
    • c. 1596-97, William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, Act II, scene 5[2]:
      Shylock:
      [] Do as I bid you; shut doors after you:
      Fast bind, fast find;
      A proverb never stale in thrifty mind.
    Synonyms: firmly, securely, tightly
    Antonym: loosely
  2. (of sleeping) Deeply or soundly [from 13th c.].
    Synonym: deeply
    Antonym: lightly
  3. Immediately following in place or time; close, very near [from 13th c.].
  4. Quickly, with great speed; within a short time [from 13th c.].
    Synonyms: quickly, rapidly, speedily, swiftly
    Antonym: slowly
  5. Ahead of the correct time or schedule.
    Synonym: ahead
    Antonym: behind
Translations

Noun

fast (plural fasts)

  1. (Britain, rail transport) A train that calls at only some stations it passes between its origin and destination, typically just the principal stations
    Synonyms: express, express train, fast train
    Antonyms: local, slow train, stopper
Translations

Interjection

fast

  1. (archery) Short for “stand fast”, a warning not to pass between the arrow and the target
    Antonym: loose
Translations

Etymology 2

From Middle English fasten, from Old English fæstan (verb), from Proto-Germanic *fastijaną, derived from *fastuz, and thereby related to Etymology 1. Cognate with Dutch vasten, German fasten, Old Norse fasta, Gothic ???????????????????????? (fastan), Russian пост (post). The noun is probably from Old Norse fasta.

Verb

fast (third-person singular simple present fasts, present participle fasting, simple past and past participle fasted)

  1. (intransitive) To restrict one’s personal consumption, generally of food, but sometimes other things, in various manners (totally, temporally, by avoiding particular items), often for religious or medical reasons.
    Muslims fast during Ramadan and Catholics during Lent.
    • Thou didst fast and weep for the child.
Translations

Noun

fast (plural fasts)

  1. The act or practice of abstaining from food or of eating very little food.
    Synonym: fasting
  2. The period of time during which one abstains from or eats very little food.

Hyponyms

  • dharna (India)
Derived terms
Translations

References

  • fast in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.
  • fast at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • AT&SF, ATFs, ATSF, FTAs, SAFT, TAFs, afts, fats, tafs

Catalan

Etymology

From Latin fāstus (pride, arrogance).

Pronunciation

  • (Balearic, Central, Valencian) IPA(key): /ˈfast/

Noun

fast m (plural fasts or fastos)

  1. pomp
  2. luxury

Related terms

  • fastuós

Further reading

  • “fast” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.

Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fast/, [fasd̥]

Adjective

fast

  1. firm
  2. solid
  3. tight
  4. fixed
  5. permanent
  6. regular
Inflection
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From German fast (almost, nearly).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fast/, [fasd̥]

Adverb

fast

  1. (dated) almost, nearly
    Synonyms: næsten, omtrent

Etymology 3

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /faːst/, [fæːˀsd̥]

Verb

fast

  1. imperative of faste

German

Etymology 1

From Old High German fasto, compare fest. Cognate with English adverb fast. Compare Dutch vast

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fast/
  • Homophone: fasst

Adverb

fast

  1. almost; nearly
    Synonyms: beinahe, knapp, nahezu
    Antonym: ganz
  2. (in a negative clause) hardly
    Synonym: kaum

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /faːst/

Verb

fast

  1. inflection of fasen:
    1. second/third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person plural present indicative/imperative

Further reading

  • “fast” in Duden online
  • “fast” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
  • Friedrich Kluge (1883), “fast”, in John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891

Middle English

Etymology

From Old English fæst.

Adverb

fast

  1. fast (quickly)

Descendants

  • English: fast

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Adjective

fast (neuter singular fast, definite singular and plural faste)

  1. solid, steady, firm, fixed, permanent
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Verb

fast

  1. imperative of faste

References

  • “fast” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology. Akin to English fast.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /fɑst/

Adjective

fast (indefinite singular fast, definite singular and plural faste, comparative fastare, indefinite superlative fastast, definite superlative fastaste)

  1. solid, steady, firm, fixed, permanent, stuck

Derived terms

References

  • “fast” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old Saxon

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *fastī, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Adjective

fast

  1. solid, firm

Declension



Romanian

Etymology

From French faste.

Noun

fast n (uncountable)

  1. splendour, pomp

Declension


Swedish

Etymology

From Old Swedish faster, from Old Norse fastr, from Proto-Germanic *fastuz; see it for cognates and further etymology.

Pronunciation

Adjective

fast

  1. caught (unable to move freely), captured
  2. firm, fastened, unmoving
  3. solid (as opposed to liquid)
  4. although (short form of fastän)

Declension

Related terms

Adverb

fast

  1. fixed, firmly, steadily (synonymous to the adjective)
  2. almost, nearly

Conjunction

fast

  1. although, even though

Related terms

Anagrams

  • fats, saft, staf


English

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈfæstɪŋ/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈfɑːstɪŋ/
  • Rhymes: -æstɪŋ, -ɑːstɪŋ

Verb

fasting

  1. present participle and gerund of fast

Noun

fasting (countable and uncountable, plural fastings)

  1. abstinence from food
    • 1904, H. G. Wells, The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth
      Immediately after that affair Lady Wondershoot, casting about for exemplary additions to the abuse and fastings she had inflicted, issued a Ukase. She issued it first to her butler, and very suddenly, so that she made him jump.
Translations


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