free vs spare what difference

what is difference between free and spare

English

Etymology

From Middle English free, fre, freo, from Old English frēo (free), from Proto-West Germanic *frī, from Proto-Germanic *frijaz (beloved, not in bondage), from Proto-Indo-European *priHós (dear, beloved), from *preyH- (to love, please). Related to friend. Cognate with West Frisian frij (free), Dutch vrij (free), Low German free (free), German frei (free), Danish, Swedish and Norwegian fri (free), Sanskrit प्रिय (priyá).

Germanic and Celtic are the only Indo-European language branches in which the PIE word with the meaning of “dear, beloved” acquired the additional meaning of “free” in the sense of “not in bondage”. This was an extension of the idea of “characteristic of those who are dear and beloved”, in other words friends and tribe members (in contrast to unfree inhabitants from other tribes and prisoners of war, many of which were among the slaves – compare the Latin use of liberi to mean both “free persons” and “children of a family”).

The verb comes from Middle English freen, freoȝen, from Old English frēon, frēoġan (to free; make free), from Proto-West Germanic *frijōn, from Proto-Germanic *frijōną, from Proto-Indo-European *preyH-.

Pronunciation

  • enPR: frē, IPA(key): /fɹiː/, [fɹɪi̯]
  • Rhymes: -iː
  • Homophone: three (with th-fronting)

Adjective

free (comparative freer or free-er or (rare) freeër, superlative freest or free-est or (rare) freeëst)

  1. (social) Unconstrained.
    • 1610-11?, Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act V, scene i:
      Quickly, spirit! / Thou shalt ere long be free.
    Synonyms: unconstrained, unfettered, unhindered
    Antonyms: constrained, restricted
    1. Not imprisoned or enslaved.
      Antonyms: bound, enslaved, imprisoned
    2. Unconstrained by timidity or distrust
      Synonyms: unreserved, frank, communicative
    3. Generous; liberal.
    4. (obsolete) Clear of offence or crime; guiltless; innocent.
    5. Without obligations.
    6. Thrown open, or made accessible, to all; to be enjoyed without limitations; unrestricted; not obstructed, engrossed, or appropriated; open; said of a thing to be possessed or enjoyed.
    7. Not arbitrary or despotic; assuring liberty; defending individual rights against encroachment by any person or class; instituted by a free people; said of a government, institutions, etc.
    8. (software) With no or only freedom-preserving limitations on distribution or modification.
      Synonym: libre
      Antonym: proprietary
    9. (software) Intended for release, as opposed to a checked version.
  2. Obtainable without any payment.
    Synonyms: free of charge, gratis
    1. (by extension, chiefly advertising slang) complimentary
  3. (abstract) Unconstrained.
    1. (mathematics) Unconstrained by relators.
    2. (mathematics, logic) Unconstrained by quantifiers.
      Antonym: bound
    3. (programming) Unconstrained of identifiers, not bound.
      Synonym: unbound
      Antonym: bound
    4. (linguistics) (of a morpheme) That can be used by itself, unattached to another morpheme.
  4. (physical) Unconstrained.
    1. Unobstructed, without blockages.
      Synonyms: clear, unobstructed
      Antonyms: blocked, obstructed
    2. Unattached or uncombined.
      Synonyms: loose, unfastened; see also Thesaurus:loose
    3. Not currently in use; not taken; unoccupied.
    4. (botany, mycology) Not attached; loose.
  5. Without; not containing (what is specified); exempt; clear; liberated.
    Synonym: without
  6. (dated) Ready; eager; acting without spurring or whipping; spirited.
  7. (dated) Invested with a particular freedom or franchise; enjoying certain immunities or privileges; admitted to special rights; followed by of.
  8. (Britain, law, obsolete) Certain or honourable; the opposite of base.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)
  9. (law) Privileged or individual; the opposite of common.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Burrill to this entry?)

Antonyms

  • unfree

Hyponyms

  • -free

Derived terms

Related terms

Translations

Adverb

free (comparative more free, superlative most free)

  1. Without needing to pay.
    Synonyms: for free, for nothing
  2. (obsolete) Freely; willingly.

Translations

Verb

free (third-person singular simple present frees, present participle freeing, simple past and past participle freed)

  1. (transitive) To make free; set at liberty; release.
  2. (transitive) To rid of something that confines or oppresses.
    • 1885, Richard F. Burton, The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Night 564:
      Then I walked about, till I found on the further side, a great river of sweet water, running with a strong current; whereupon I called to mind the boat-raft I had made aforetime and said to myself, “Needs must I make another; haply I may free me from this strait. If I escape, I have my desire and I vow to Allah Almighty to forswear travel; and if I perish I shall be at peace and shall rest from toil and moil.”

Derived terms

  • befree

Synonyms

  • befree
  • emancipate
  • let loose
  • liberate
  • manumit
  • release
  • unchain
  • unfetter
  • unshackle

Translations

Noun

free (plural frees)

  1. (Australian rules football, Gaelic football) Abbreviation of free kick.
    • 2006, [1]:
      Whether deserved or not, the free gave Cresswell the chance to cover himself in glory with a shot on goal after the siren.
  2. free transfer
  3. (hurling) The usual means of restarting play after a foul is committed, where the non-offending team restarts from where the foul was committed.
  4. (swimming) the freestyle stroke

Translations

References

Anagrams

  • feer, fere, reef

Galician

Verb

free

  1. first-person singular present subjunctive of frear
  2. third-person singular present subjunctive of frear

Low German

Alternative forms

  • frie (more common)

Etymology

From Middle Low German vrîe, variant of vrî, from Old Saxon frī, from Proto-Germanic *frijaz, from Proto-Indo-European *prey (new). Compare Dutch vrij, West Frisian frij, English free, German frei.

Adjective

free (comparative fre’er, superlative freest)

  1. (rather rare) free

Declension

Derived terms

  • Freeheit


English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈspɛə(ɹ)/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈspɛəɹ/
  • Rhymes: -ɛə(ɹ)

Etymology 1

From Middle English spare, spar, from Old English spær (sparing, scant), from Proto-Germanic *sparaz (compare with Dutch spaar(zaam), German spar(sam) and spär(lich), Swedish spar(sam), Icelandic sparr (sparing)), from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (compare Latin (pro)sperus (lucky), Old Church Slavonic споръ (sporŭ, plentiful), Albanian shperr (earn money), Persian سپار(sepār, entrust; deposit), Ancient Greek σπαρνός (sparnós, rare), Sanskrit स्फिर (sphirá, thick)).

Adjective

spare (comparative sparer, superlative sparest)

  1. Scant; not abundant or plentiful.
  2. Sparing; frugal; parsimonious; not spending much money.
    • 1602, Richard Carew, Survey of Cornwall
      He was spare, [] but discreet of speech.
  3. Being more than what is necessary, or what must be used or reserved; not wanted, or not used; superfluous.
  4. Held in reserve, to be used in an emergency.
  5. Not occupied or in current use.
  6. Lean; lacking flesh; meager; thin; gaunt.
  7. (Britain, informal) Very angry; frustrated or distraught.
    • 2006, Tate Hallaway, Tall, Dark & Dead:
      “That’ll drive him spare.”
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Welsh: sbâr
Translations

Noun

spare (plural spares)

  1. The act of sparing; moderation; restraint.
    • 1600, Philemon Holland, The Romane Historie
      men slaine, then without any spare at all they trampled over the dead carkasses
  2. Parsimony; frugal use.
  3. An opening in a petticoat or gown; a placket.
  4. That which has not been used or expended.
  5. A spare part, especially a spare tire.
  6. A superfluous or second-best person, specially (in a dynastic context) in the phrase “An heir and a spare“.
  7. (bowling) The right of bowling again at a full set of pins, after having knocked all the pins down in less than three bowls. If all the pins are knocked down in one bowl it is a double spare; in two bowls, a single spare.
  8. (bowling) The act of knocking down all remaining pins in second ball of a frame; this entitles the pins knocked down on the next ball to be added to the score for that frame.
  9. (Canada) A free period; a block of school during which one does not have a class.
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Middle English sparen, sparien, from Old English sparian (to spare, show mercy to, refrain from injuring or destroying), from Proto-Germanic *sparōną, *sparāną (to save, keep, spare), from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to be productive, earn). Cognate with Scots spar, spare, spair (to spare), West Frisian sparje (to save, spare), Dutch sparen (to save, spare), German sparen (to save, conserve, economise), Swedish spara (to save, save up), Icelandic spara (to save, conserve).

Verb

spare (third-person singular simple present spares, present participle sparing, simple past and past participle spared)

  1. To show mercy.
    1. (intransitive) To desist; to stop; to refrain.
    2. (intransitive) To refrain from inflicting harm; to use mercy or forbearance.
    3. (transitive) To preserve from danger or punishment; to forbear to punish, injure, or harm; to show mercy.
      • 1883, Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island
        Kill me, if you please, or spare me.
  2. To keep.
    1. (intransitive) To be frugal; not to be profuse; to live frugally; to be parsimonious.
    2. (transitive) To keep to oneself; to forbear to impart or give.
    3. (transitive) To save or gain, as by frugality; to reserve, as from some occupation, use, or duty.
  3. (transitive) (to give up): To deprive oneself of, as by being frugal; to do without; to dispense with; to give up; to part with.
    • a. 1779, Earl of Roscommon, “The Twenty-second Ode of the First Book of Horace”:
      Where angry Jove did never spare / One breath of kind and temperate air.
    • c. 1597, William Shakespeare, The History of Henry the Fourth (Part 1), Act V, scene iv:
      Poor Jack, farewell! / I could have better spared a better man
Derived terms
Descendants
  • Welsh: sbario
Translations

Anagrams

  • Asper, Earps, Pears, Peras, RESPA, Rapes, Spear, Spera, apers, apres, après, après-, aprés, as per, asper, pares, parse, pears, prase, presa, præs., rapes, reaps, sarpe, spear

Danish

Etymology 1

From English spare. Related to the following verb.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /spɛːr/, [ˈsb̥ɛɐ̯], [ˈsb̥æɐ̯]

Noun

spare c (singular definite sparen, plural indefinite spare or spares)

  1. (bowling) spare (the act of knocking down all remaining pins in second ball of a frame)
Inflection

References

  • “spare,1” in Den Danske Ordbog

Etymology 2

From Old Norse spara, from Proto-Germanic *sparāną, cognate with Swedish spara, English spare, German sparen.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /spaːrə/, [ˈsb̥ɑːɑ]
  • Homophones: sparer, sparre, sparrer

Verb

spare (past tense sparede, past participle sparet)

  1. to save
  2. to spare
  3. to economize
  4. to save up

Inflection

References

  • “spare,2” in Den Danske Ordbog

Dutch

Pronunciation

Verb

spare

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of sparen

French

Etymology 1

From Latin sparus

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /spaʁ/

Noun

spare m (plural spares)

  1. A fish of the superorder Acanthopterygii

Etymology 2

From English spare

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /spɛʁ/

Noun

spare m (plural spares)

  1. (bowling) a spare.

Related terms

  • strike

German

Verb

spare

  1. inflection of sparen:
    1. first-person singular present
    2. first/third-person singular subjunctive I
    3. singular imperative

Italian

Verb

spare

  1. third-person singular present indicative of sparere

Anagrams

  • Serpa, Sprea, aspre, parse, persa, presa, raspe, saper, serpa, spera

Latin

Noun

spare

  1. vocative singular of sparus

Middle English

Etymology 1

Noun

spare

  1. Alternative form of sparre

Etymology 2

Verb

spare

  1. Alternative form of sparren (to close)

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse spara

Verb

spare (imperative spar, present tense sparer, passive spares, simple past sparte, past participle spart, present participle sparende)

  1. to save

Derived terms

  • sparebank

References

  • “spare” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

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