grave vs scratch what difference

what is difference between grave and scratch

English

Pronunciation

  • enPR: grāv, IPA(key): /ɡɹeɪv/
  • Rhymes: -eɪv

Etymology 1

From Middle English grave, grafe, from Old English græf, grafu (cave, grave, trench), from Proto-Germanic *grabą, *grabō (grave, trench, ditch), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰrebʰ- (to dig, scratch, scrape).

Cognate with West Frisian grêf (grave), Dutch graf (grave), Low German Graf (a grave), Graff, German Grab (grave), Danish, Swedish and Norwegian grav (grave), Icelandic gröf (grave). Related to groove.

Noun

grave (plural graves)

  1. An excavation in the earth as a place of burial
    • He had lain in the grave four days.
    • 1856, Eleanor Marx-Aveling (translator), Gustave Flaubert (author), Madame Bovary, Part III, Chapter X:
      They reached the cemetery. The men went right down to a place in the grass where a grave was dug. They ranged themselves all round; and while the priest spoke, the red soil thrown up at the sides kept noiselessly slipping down at the corners.
  2. Any place of interment; a tomb; a sepulcher.
  3. (by extension) Death, destruction.
  4. (by extension) Deceased people; the dead.
Derived terms
Related terms
  • groove
Translations

See also

  • grave (burial) on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Etymology 2

From Middle English graven, from Old English grafan (to dig, dig up, grave, engrave, carve, chisel), from Proto-Germanic *grabaną (to dig), from Proto-Indo-European *gʰrebʰ- (to dig, scratch, scrape). Cognate with Dutch graven (to dig), German graben (to dig), Danish grave (to dig), Swedish gräva (to dig), Icelandic grafa (to dig).

Verb

grave (third-person singular simple present graves, present participle graving, simple past graved or grove, past participle graved or graven)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To dig.
    • He hath graven and digged up a pit.
  2. (intransitive, obsolete) To carve or cut, as letters or figures, on some hard substance; to engrave.
    • Thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel.
    • a. 1894, Robert Louis Stevenson, “Requiem”
      This be the verse you grave for me / “Here he lies where he longs to be”
  3. (transitive, obsolete) To carve out or give shape to, by cutting with a chisel; to sculpture.
    to grave an image
    • With gold, men may the herte grave.
  4. (intransitive, obsolete) To impress deeply (on the mind); to fix indelibly.
    • O! may they graven in thy heart remain.
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To entomb; to bury.
    • c. 1595, William Shakespeare, Richard II, Act III, Scene ii[5]:
      [] And lie full low, graved in the hollow ground.
  6. (intransitive, obsolete) To write or delineate on hard substances, by means of incised lines; to practice engraving.
Related terms
  • begrave
  • engrave
Translations

Etymology 3

From Middle French grave, a learned borrowing from Latin gravis (heavy, important). Compare Old French greve (terrible, dreadful). Doublet of grief.

Adjective

grave (comparative graver, superlative gravest)

  1. Characterised by a dignified sense of seriousness; not cheerful. [from 16th c.]
    • 1597, William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, act 3, scene 1, Mercutio:
    Synonyms: sober, solemn, sombre, sedate, serious, staid
  2. Low in pitch, tone etc. [from 17th c.]
    Antonym: acute
    • 1854, John Weeks Moore, Encyclopedia of Music:
      The thicker the cord or string, the more grave is the note or tone.
  3. Serious, in a negative sense; important, formidable. [from 19th c.]
    Synonyms: serious, momentous, important
  4. (obsolete) Influential, important; authoritative. [16th-18th c.]
Synonyms
  • weightsome, sweer
  • (unsorted by sense): sage, demure, thoughtful, weighty
Translations

Noun

grave (plural graves)

  1. A written accent used in French, Italian, and other languages. è is an e with a grave accent (`).
Translations

Etymology 4

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Related to Dutch graaf, German Graf”)

Noun

grave (plural graves)

  1. (historical) A count, prefect, or person holding office.
Related terms
  • burgrave
  • landgrave
  • margrave
  • palsgrave
  • waldgrave

Etymology 5

Verb

grave (third-person singular simple present graves, present participle graving, simple past and past participle graved)

  1. (transitive, obsolete, nautical) To clean, as a vessel’s bottom, of barnacles, grass, etc., and pay it over with pitch — so called because graves or greaves was formerly used for this purpose.
Related terms
  • graving dock

Anagrams

  • Gaver

Danish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡraːvə/, [ˈɡ̊ʁɑːvə]

Etymology 1

From Italian grave, from Latin gravis (heavy, grave).

Adverb

grave

  1. (music) grave (low in pitch, tone etc.)
  2. accent grave – accent grave, grave accent

Etymology 2

From Old Norse grafa (to dig, bury), from Proto-Germanic *grabaną, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰrābʰ- (to dig, scratch, scrape).

Verb

grave (imperative grav, infinitive at grave, present tense graver, past tense gravede, perfect tense har gravet)

  1. dig (to move hard-packed earth out of the way)
Derived terms

Etymology 3

See grav (grave, tomb, pit).

Noun

grave c

  1. indefinite plural of grav

Dutch

Pronunciation

Verb

grave

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of graven

Anagrams

  • verga, vrage

Esperanto

Adverb

grave

  1. seriously, gravely

French

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡʁav/

Etymology 1

From Middle French grave, borrowed from Latin gravis. Doublet of grief.

Adjective

grave (plural graves)

  1. serious
  2. solemn
  3. low-pitched
    Antonym: aigu
  4. (phonetics) back
    • 1911 April, “Quelques mots sur la pronunciation des lettres Turques” in Dictionnaire turc-français[7]:
Derived terms
  • accent grave
  • gravement
  • l’heure est grave
Related terms
  • gravissime
  • gravitation
  • gravité

Descendants

  • Norwegian Bokmål: grave

Adverb

grave

  1. (informal, slang) much; a lot

Etymology 2

Verb

grave

  1. first-person singular present indicative of graver
  2. third-person singular present indicative of graver
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of graver
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of graver
  5. second-person singular imperative of graver

Further reading

  • “grave” in Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Anagrams

  • gaver

Italian

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin gravis. Doublet of greve.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡra.ve/

Adjective

grave (plural gravi, superlative gravissimo)

  1. grave, serious
  2. heavy
  3. solemn
  4. (music) low-pitched, low-pitch

Synonyms

  • importante
  • pesante
  • austero
  • serio

Antonyms

  • acuto

Related terms

  • gravemente
  • gravare
  • gravezza
  • gravità
  • gravoso

Descendants

  • Danish: grave

Anagrams

  • Verga, verga

Latin

Adjective

grave

  1. nominative neuter singular of gravis
  2. accusative neuter singular of gravis
  3. vocative neuter singular of gravis

References

  • grave in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • grave in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • grave in The Perseus Project (1999) Perseus Encyclopedia[8]

Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English græf, from Proto-Germanic *grabą.

Alternative forms

  • graf, grafe, grawe, graffe

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡraːv/, /ɡrav/

Noun

grave (plural graves)

  1. grave, burial
  2. tomb, mausoleum
Derived terms
  • gravestone
  • graven
Descendants
  • English: grave
  • Scots: grave, grawe, graive, graiwe, greawe
References
  • “grāve, n.(1).”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 2018-04-09.

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡraːvɛi̯/, /ˈɡraːveː/

Noun

grave (plural graves)

  1. Alternative form of gravey

Etymology 3

Noun

grave

  1. (Early Middle English) Alternative form of grove

Middle French

Alternative forms

  • greve

Etymology

From Old French grave.

Noun

grave f (plural graves)

  1. gravel

Descendants

  • French: grave
    • Norwegian Bokmål: grave

References

  • Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (grave)

Middle High German

Etymology

From Old High German grāfo, grāvo, grāfio, grāvio (count, local judge).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ɡraːvə/

Noun

grâve m

  1. count, local judge

Declension

Derived terms

  • burcgrâve
  • göugrâve

Descendants

  • German: Graf

References

  • “grâve” Benecke, Georg Friedrich, Wilhelm Müller, and Friedrich Zarncke. Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch: mit benutzung des Nachlasses von Benecke. Vol. 1. S. Hirzel, 1863.

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

From Old Norse grafa, from Proto-Germanic *grabaną, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰrābʰ- (to dig, scratch, scrape).

Verb

grave (imperative grav, present tense graver, passive graves, simple past gravde or grov, past participle gravd, present participle gravende)

  1. to dig

Etymology 2

From French grave (serious, low-pitched; back), from Middle French grave, from Old French grave, from Latin gravis (heavy, grave, serious), from Proto-Indo-European *gʷréh₂us (heavy), from *gʷreh₂- (heavy) + *-us (forms adjectives).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡrɑːʋ/
  • Rhymes: -ɑːʋ
  • Hyphenation: grave
  • Homophone: grav

Noun

grave m (definite singular graven, indefinite plural graver, definite plural gravene)

  1. Only used in accent grave (grave accent)

References

  • “grave” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
  • “grave” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).

Norwegian Nynorsk

Verb

grave (present tense grev, past tense grov, past participle grave, passive infinitive gravast, present participle gravande, imperative grav)

  1. Alternative form of grava

Derived terms

  • gullgraving
  • utgraving

Old French

Alternative forms

  • greve

Etymology

Medieval Latin grava, from Gaulish *grawa, *growa, from Proto-Celtic *grāwā, related to Cornish grow (gravel), Breton grouan, and Welsh gro (gravel); ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gʰr-eu-d-.

Noun

grave f (oblique plural graves, nominative singular grave, nominative plural graves)

  1. gravel

Descendants

  • Middle French: grave
    • French: grave
      • Norwegian Bokmål: grave

References

  • Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (grave)

Portuguese

Pronunciation

  • (South Brazil) IPA(key): /ˈɡɾa.ve/
  • Hyphenation: cra‧ve
  • Rhymes: -avi, -avɨ

Etymology 1

From Old Portuguese grave, from Latin gravis (heavy; grave), from Proto-Indo-European *gʷréh₂us.

Adjective

grave m or f (plural graves, comparable)

  1. serious; grave (having possible severe negative consequences)
    Synonyms: sério, severo
  2. (of sound) low-pitched; grave (low in pitch or tone)
    Synonym: baixo
  3. grave; serious; sombre; austere; solemn (characterised by a dignified sense of seriousness)
    Synonyms: sério, austero, circunspeto, sisudo, solene
  4. (archaic, physics) that falls down; that doesn’t float
Inflection
Antonyms
  • (low-pitched): agudo
Derived terms
  • gravemente

Noun

grave m or f (in variation) (plural graves)

  1. (music) a low-pitched note

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

grave

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of gravar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of gravar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of gravar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of gravar

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡɾabe/, [ˈɡɾa.β̞e]
  • Homophone: grabe

Etymology 1

From Old Spanish grave, from Latin gravis, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷréh₂us. Cf. also the attested Old Spanish form grieve, from a Vulgar Latin variant *grevis, which was more common in other Romance-speaking areas.

Adjective

grave (plural graves) (superlative gravísimo)

  1. serious, grave
  2. bass (sound)
    Synonym: bajo
    Antonym: agudo
  3. solemn
  4. (phonetics) paroxytone; stressed in the penultimate syllable
    Synonym: llano
    Coordinate terms: agudo, esdrújulo, sobresdrújulo
Derived terms
Related terms
  • gravar
  • gravedad
  • gravitar
Descendants
  • Tagalog: grabe

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

grave

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of gravar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of gravar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of gravar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of gravar.

Anagrams

  • verga

Further reading

  • “grave” in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014.

References


Swedish

Adjective

grave

  1. absolute definite natural masculine singular of grav.

Anagrams

  • avger

West Frisian

Etymology

From Old Frisian grava, from Proto-West Germanic *graban, from Proto-Germanic *grabaną.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈɡraːvə/

Verb

grave

  1. to dig

Inflection

Further reading

  • “grave”, in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011


English

Etymology

From Middle English scracchen, of uncertain origin. Probably a blend of Middle English scratten (to scratch) and cracchen (to scratch). More at scrat and cratch.

Pronunciation

  • enPR: skrăch, IPA(key): /skɹætʃ/
  • Rhymes: -ætʃ

Verb

scratch (third-person singular simple present scratches, present participle scratching, simple past and past participle scratched)

  1. To rub a surface with a sharp object, especially by a living creature to remove itching with nails, claws, etc.
  2. To rub the skin with rough material causing a sensation of irritation; to cause itching.
    1. For a man, when kissing someone, to irritate the skin of that person with one’s unshaven beard.
  3. To mark a surface with a sharp object, thereby leaving a scratch (noun).
  4. To cross out, strike out, strike through some text on a page.
    1. Hence, to remove, ignore or delete.
  5. (music) To produce a distinctive sound on a turntable by moving a vinyl record back and forth while manipulating the crossfader (see also scratching).
  6. (billiards) To commit a foul in pool, as where the cue ball is put into a pocket or jumps off the table.
  7. (billiards, dated, US) To score, not by skillful play but by some fortunate chance of the game.
  8. To write or draw hastily or awkwardly; scrawl.
  9. (transitive, intransitive) To dig or excavate with the claws.
  10. To dig or scrape (a person’s skin) with claws or fingernails in self-defense or with the intention to injure.
  11. (swimming, athletics) To announce one’s non-participation in a race or sports event part of a larger sports meeting that they were previously signed up for, usually in lieu of another event at the same meeting.

Synonyms

  • scrattle

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

scratch (countable and uncountable, plural scratches)

  1. A disruption, mark or shallow cut on a surface made by scratching.
    • 1677-1684, Joseph Moxon, Mechanick Exercises
      The coarse file [] makes deep scratches in the work.
    • 1709, Matthew Prior, Henry and Emma, line 503
      These nails with scratches deform my breast.
  2. An act of scratching the skin to alleviate an itch or irritation.
  3. (sports)
    1. A starting line (originally and simply, a line scratched in the ground), as in boxing.
      (Can we find and add a quotation of Grose to this entry?)
    2. A technical error of touching or surpassing the starting mark prior to the official start signal in the sporting events of long jump, discus, hammer throw, shot put, and similar. Originally the starting mark was a scratch on the ground but is now a board or precisely indicated mark.
    3. (cycling) The last riders to depart in a handicap race.
    4. (billiards) An aberration.
      1. A foul in pool, as where the cue ball is put into a pocket or jumps off the table.
      2. (archaic, US, slang) A shot which scores by chance and not as intended by the player; a fluke.
    5. (horse racing) A horse withdrawn from a race prior to the start.
  4. (slang) Money.
    • 2006, Clive James, North Face of Soho, Picador 2007, p. 153:
      He and Bruce cooked up a script together, and Bruce flew home to raise the scratch.
  5. A feed, usually a mixture of a few common grains, given to chickens.
  6. (in the plural) Minute, but tender and troublesome, excoriations, covered with scabs, upon the heels of horses which have been used where it is very wet or muddy.
    • 1887, James Law, The Farmer’s Veterinary Adviser
      These are exemplified in the scurfy, scaly affections which appear in the bend of the knee (mallenders) and hock (sallenders) and on the lower parts of the limbs, by scratches, and by a scaly exfoliation [].
  7. (now historical) A scratch wig.
    • 1775, Frances Burney, Journals & Letters, Penguin 2001, 26 March:
      [H]e turned to him with a dejected Face, and said ‘ – pray Sir, – could you touch up This a little?’ taking hold of his frightful scratch.
  8. (music) A genre of Virgin Islander music, better known as fungi.

Synonyms

  • (Virgin Islander music): fungi, quelbe

Derived terms

Translations

Adjective

scratch (not comparable)

  1. For or consisting of preliminary or tentative, incomplete, etc. work.
  2. Hastily assembled, arranged or constructed, from whatever materials are to hand, with little or no preparation
    • 1988, James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, Oxford 2004, p. 740:
      Bluecoats began crossing the James on June 14 and next day two corps approached Petersburg, which was held by Beauregard with a scratch force of 2,500.
  3. (computing, from scratchpad) Relating to a data structure or recording medium attached to a machine for testing or temporary use.
  4. (sports) (of a player) Of a standard high enough to play without a handicap, i.e. to compete without the benefit of a variation in scoring based on ability.

Derived terms

  • scratch sheet

References

  • Douglas Harper (2001–2021), “scratch”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.
  • The Jargon File – Scratch

French

Etymology

From English scratch.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /skʁatʃ/

Noun

scratch m (plural scratchs)

  1. Velcro

Synonyms

  • velcro

Italian

Etymology

From English scratch.

Noun

scratch m (invariable)

  1. (music) scratch

Spanish

Etymology

From English scratch.

Noun

scratch m (plural scratchs)

  1. (music) scratch

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