hard vs soft what difference

what is difference between hard and soft

English

Etymology

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kort-ús, from *kret- (strong, powerful). Cognate with German hart, Swedish hård, Ancient Greek κρατύς (kratús), Sanskrit क्रतु (krátu), Avestan ????????????????????(xratu).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: häd, IPA(key): /hɑːd/
  • (General American) enPR: härd, IPA(key): /hɑɹd/
  • Rhymes: -ɑː(ɹ)d

Adjective

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (of material or fluid) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Resistant to pressure.
    2. (of drink or drugs) Strong.
    3. (of a normally nonalcoholic drink) Containing alcohol.
      hard cider, hard lemonade, hard seltzer, hard soda
    4. (of water) High in dissolved chemical salts, especially those of calcium.
    5. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
    6. (photography, of light) Made up of parallel rays, producing clearly defined shadows.
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Difficult or requiring a lot of effort to do, understand, experience, or deal with.
      • 1988, An Oracle, Edmund White
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      The senator asked the party chief to put the hard word on his potential rivals.
      • 1730, Henry Fielding, Rape upon Rape, Act 4, Scene 7:
        Leave off fornicating; leave the girls to the boys, and stand to thy bottle; it is a virtue becoming our years; and don’t be too hard on a wild honest young rake.
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
    5. (military) Hardened; having unusually strong defences.
      a hard site
  3. Unquestionable, unequivocal.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused; having an erect penis.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics, not comparable)
    1. Plosive.
    2. Unvoiced
    3. Velarized or plain, rather than palatalized
  8. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.
  9. (not comparable)
    1. In a physical form, not digital.
    2. Using a manual or physical process, not by means of a software command.
  10. (politics) Far, extreme.
    hard right, hard left
  11. Of silk: not having had the natural gum boiled off.

Synonyms

  • (resistant to pressure): resistant, solid, stony, see also Thesaurus:hard
  • (requiring a lot of effort to do or understand): confusing, difficult, puzzling, tough, tricky
  • (requiring a lot of effort to endure): difficult, intolerable, tough, unbearable
  • (severe): harsh, hostile, severe, strict, tough, unfriendly
  • (unquestionable): incontrovertible, indubitable, unambiguous, unequivocal, unquestionable
  • (of drink): strong
  • See also Thesaurus:difficult

Antonyms

  • (resistant to pressure): soft
  • (requiring a lot of effort to do or understand): easy, simple, straightforward, trite
  • (requiring a lot of effort to endure): bearable, easy
  • (severe): agreeable, amiable, approachable, friendly, nice, pleasant
  • (unquestionable): controvertible, doubtful, ambiguous, equivocal, questionable
  • (of drink):
    • (low in alcohol): low-alcohol
    • (non-alcoholic): alcohol-free, soft, non-alcoholic
  • (of roads): soft
  • (sexually aroused): soft, flaccid
  • (phonetics, all senses): soft

Derived terms

  • Pages starting with “hard”.
  • Related terms

    • hardpeer
    • hardy

    Descendants

    • Finnish: haarti

    Translations

    Adverb

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

    1. (manner) With much force or effort.
      He hit the puck hard up the ice.
      They worked hard all week.
      At the intersection, bear hard left.
      The recession hit them especially hard.
      Think hard about your choices.
      • prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
      • c. 1610-11, William Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act III, Scene i[3]:
        [] My father / Is hard at study. Pray now, rest yourself;
    2. (manner) With difficulty.
      His degree was hard earned.
    3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
    4. (manner) Compactly.
      The lake had finally frozen hard.
    5. (now archaic) Near, close.
      • [] whose house joined hard to the synagogue.
      • 1999, George RR Martin, A Clash of Kings, Bantam 2011, page 418:
        It was another long day’s march before they glimpsed the towers of Harrenhal in the distance, hard beside the blue waters of the lake.

    Derived terms

    Translations

    Noun

    hard (countable and uncountable, plural hards)

    1. (countable, nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water.
      • 1952, Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu, Beaulieu, the Abbey, Palace House, and Buckler’s Hard (page 36)
        The Monastery’s ironworks at Sowley were renowned for centuries but declined with the passing of the ‘wooden walls’ at Buckler’s Hard — a great number of these ships having been built with timber from the Beaulieu Woods []
    2. (countable, motorsports) A tyre whose compound is softer than superhards, and harder than mediums.
    3. (uncountable, drugs, slang) Crack cocaine.
    4. (uncountable, slang) Hard labor.
      The prisoners were sentenced to three years’ hard.

    Anagrams

    • Dhar

    Dutch

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /ɦɑrt/
    • Hyphenation: hard
    • Rhymes: -ɑrt
    • Homophone: hart

    Etymology 1

    From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

    1. hard, strong
      Antonym: zacht
    2. (economics, of a currency) strong, not easily devalued
    3. unquestionable, uncontestable
    4. heartless, unsympathetic (of a person)
      Antonym: zacht
    5. hard, difficult
    6. harsh, heavy
    7. hard, rich in calcium (of water)
      Antonym: zacht
    8. loud (of sound)
      Synonym: luid
      Antonym: zacht
    9. fast
      Antonyms: langzaam, traag
      Synonym: snel
    Inflection
    Derived terms
    • keihard
    • harden
    • hardheid
    • hardlopen
    • hardroeien
    • hardrijden
    Descendants
    • Jersey Dutch: hārd
    • Negerhollands: hart
    • Skepi Creole Dutch: hardt

    Etymology 2

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Adverb

    hard

    1. (speed) fast, swiftly
    2. very
    3. loudly

    Etymology 3

    See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

    Verb

    hard

    1. first-person singular present indicative of harden
    2. imperative of harden

    French

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English hard.

    Pronunciation

    • (aspirated h) IPA(key): /aʁd/

    Adjective

    hard (plural hards)

    1. (of pornography) hardcore

    Noun

    hard m (plural hards)

    1. hardcore pornography
    2. hard rock
      • 2004, Thomas Mansier, Identité du rock et presse spécialisée. Évolution d’une culture et de son discours critique dans les magazines français des années 90, page 98.
      • 2014, Christian Eudeline, “Uriah Heep. Look At Yourself”, in Du hard rock au métal. Les 100 albums cultes, Gründ (publ.).

    Irish

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): [haːɾˠd̪ˠ]

    Adjective

    hard

    1. h-prothesized form of ard

    Norwegian Bokmål

    Etymology

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective

    hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardere, indefinite superlative hardest, definite superlative hardeste)

    1. hard (not soft)
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms

    • beinhard
    • hardhet
    • hardkokt
    • hardtslående

    Related terms

    • forherde
    • herde

    References

    • “hard” in The Bokmål Dictionary.

    Norwegian Nynorsk

    Etymology

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /hɑːr/, /hɑːɽ/ (example of pronunciation)
    • Homophone: har

    Adjective

    hard (masculine and feminine hard, neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

    1. hard
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms

    • beinhard
    • hardkokt

    References

    • “hard” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

    Old Saxon

    Etymology

    From Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī).

    Adjective

    hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

    1. hard

    Declension




    Derived terms

    • hardī

    Descendants

    • Low German: hard, hart (inflected hart-)

    Spanish

    Etymology

    From English hard.

    Adjective

    hard (invariable)

    1. hard, heavy, hardcore


    English

    Etymology

    From Middle English softe, from Old English sōfte, alteration of earlier sēfte (soft), from Proto-West Germanic *samftī (level, even, smooth, soft, gentle) (compare *sōmiz (agreeable, fitting)), from Proto-Indo-European *semptio-, *semtio-, from *sem- (one, whole). Cognate with West Frisian sêft (gentle; soft), Dutch zacht (soft), German Low German sacht (soft), German sanft (soft, yielding), Old Norse sœmr (agreeable, fitting), samr (same). More at seem, same.

    Pronunciation

    • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: sŏft, IPA(key): /sɒft/
      • (Conservative RP) IPA(key): /sɔːft/
    • (General American) enPR: sôft, IPA(key): /sɔft/
    • (cotcaught merger, Canada) IPA(key): /sɑft/, enPR: sŏft
    • Rhymes: -ɒft

    Adjective

    soft (comparative softer, superlative softest)

    1. Easily giving way under pressure.
    2. (of cloth or similar material) Smooth and flexible; not rough, rugged, or harsh.
    3. (of a sound) Quiet.
    4. Gentle.
      There was a soft breeze blowing.
      • c. 1533, William Tyndale, An exposicion upon of Mathew
        The meek or soft shall inherit the earth.
    5. Expressing gentleness or tenderness; mild; conciliatory; courteous; kind.
      • 1815, William Wordsworth, To a Highland Girl
        A face with gladness overspread, / Soft smiles, by human kindness bred.
    6. Gentle in action or motion; easy.
    7. Weak in character; impressible.
      • 1665, Joseph Glanvill, Scepsis Scientifica
        The deceiver soon found this soft place of Adam’s.
    8. Requiring little or no effort; easy.
      • 1892, Robert Louis Stevenson, The Beach of Falesá
        Before that they had been a good deal on the move, trekking about after the white man, who was one of those rolling stones that keep going round after a soft job.
    9. Not bright or intense.
    10. Having a slight angle from straight.
    11. (linguistics) Voiced; sonant.
      • 1954, J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings
        DH represents the voiced (soft) th of English these clothes.
    12. (linguistics, rare) voiceless
    13. (linguistics, Slavic languages) palatalized
    14. (slang) Lacking strength or resolve; not tough, wimpy.
    15. (of water) Low in dissolved calcium compounds.
    16. (Britain, colloquial) Foolish.
      • 1621, Robert Burton, The Essential Anatomy of Melancholy
        He made soft fellows stark noddies, and such as were foolish quite mad.
    17. (physics) Of a ferromagnetic material; a material that becomes essentially non-magnetic when an external magnetic field is removed, a material with a low magnetic coercivity. (compare hard)
    18. (of a person) Physically or emotionally weak.
    19. Incomplete, or temporary; not a full action.
    20. (Britain, of a man) Effeminate.
      • 1650, Jeremy Taylor, The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living
        A longing after sensual pleasures is a dissolution of the spirit of a man, and makes it loose, soft, and wandering.
    21. Agreeable to the senses.
    22. Not harsh or offensive to the sight; not glaring or jagged; pleasing to the eye.
      • 1673, Edward Browne, A Brief Account of some Travels in Hungaria, Styria, Bulgaria, Thessaly, Austria, Serbia, Carynthia, Carniola, and Friuli
        The sun, shining upon the upper part of the clouds [] made the softest lights imaginable.
    23. (photography, of light) Made up of nonparallel rays, tending to wrap around a subject and produce diffuse shadows.
    24. (computing) Emulated with software; not physically real.
    25. (of a drug) Not likely to cause addiction.

    Synonyms

    • (giving way under pressure): see Thesaurus:soft
    • (of a cloth): non-abrasive, fluffy
    • (gentle): gentle, light, nesh
    • (of a sound): quiet
    • (lacking strength or resolve): meek, mild, wimpy, nesh
    • (foolish): daft, foolish, silly, stupid

    Antonyms

    • (giving way under pressure): hard, resistant, solid, stony
    • (of a cloth): abrasive, scratchy
    • (gentle): harsh, rough, strong
    • (acute): hard
    • (of a sound): loud
    • (lacking strength or resolve): firm, strict, tough
    • (of water): hard
    • (foolish): sensible

    Derived terms

    Translations

    See also

    • mollify

    Interjection

    soft

    1. (archaic) Be quiet; hold; stop; not so fast.

    Adverb

    soft (comparative more soft, superlative most soft)

    1. (obsolete) Softly; without roughness or harshness; gently; quietly.
      • There was a neat hat-and-umbrella stand, and the stranger’s weary feet fell soft on a good, serviceable dark-red drugget, which matched in colour the flock-paper on the walls.

    Noun

    soft (plural softs)

    1. A soft or foolish person; an idiot.
      • 1859, George Eliot, Adam Bede Part I, Chapter 9
        It’ll do you no good to sit in a spring-cart o’ your own, if you’ve got a soft to drive you: he’ll soon turn you over into the ditch.
    2. (motorsports) Ellipsis of soft tyre (A tyre whose compound is softer than mediums, and harder than supersofts.)
    3. (colloquial) A soft sound or part of a sound.
      • 2012, Sam McGuire, Paul Lee, The Video Editor’s Guide to Soundtrack Pro (page 103)
        The expander doesn’t really make the louds louder and the softs softer in one step []

    Czech

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English soft(ware).

    Noun

    soft m

    1. (colloquial) software, program
      • 18 March 1999, CD-R 74min X 80min, Group cz.comp.ibmpc:
        Zajimalo by mne, zda jsou tyto CD schopna pracovat na plnou kapacitu s normalnimi vypalovackami a beznym softem nebo je na ne potreba mit extra vypalovadlo i soft?
      • 19 March 2009, Zalohovaci SW, Group cz.talk:
        Pokud těch dat máte víc, pak tím TARem stačí zálohovat základ systému a zbytek řešit zálohovacím softem, kterej umí dělit archiv na několik pásek.
      • 2 April 2010, gsm modul / telefon, Group cz.comp.linux:
        ma nekdo nejake zkusenosti s takovym zarizenim ci softem kterym to ovladat?

    Declension

    Further reading

    • soft in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu
    • soft in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

    French

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English soft.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /sɔft/

    Noun

    soft m (plural softs)

    1. (sexuality) soft porn
    2. (computing, uncountable) Software.
    3. (computing, countable) A piece of software.

    Adjective

    soft (plural softs)

    1. softcore (pornography)

    Italian

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English soft.

    Pronunciation

    • IPA(key): /ˈsɔft/

    Adjective

    soft (invariable)

    1. soft (tone etc; temporary (computing))

    References


    Polish

    Etymology

    Borrowed from English soft(ware).

    Noun

    soft m inan

    1. (colloquial) software, program

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