harsh vs rough what difference

what is difference between harsh and rough

English

Etymology

From Middle English harsk, harisk(e), hask(e), herris. Century derived the term from Old Norse harskr (whence Danish harsk (rancid), dialectal Norwegian hersk, Swedish härsk); the Middle English Dictionary derives it from that and Middle Low German harsch (rough, literally hairy) (whence also German harsch), from haer (hair); the Oxford Dictionary of English derives it from Middle Low German alone.

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /hɑɹʃ/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /hɑːʃ/
  • Rhymes: -ɑː(ɹ)ʃ

Adjective

harsh (comparative harsher, superlative harshest)

  1. Unpleasantly rough to the touch or other senses.
  2. Severe or cruel.

Antonyms

  • genteel

Translations

Verb

harsh (third-person singular simple present harshes, present participle harshing, simple past and past participle harshed)

  1. (intransitive, slang) To negatively criticize.
  2. (transitive, slang) to put a damper on (a mood).

Synonyms

  • rough

Derived terms

  • harshly
  • harshness

Translations



English

Alternative forms

  • ruff (colloquial)

Etymology

From Middle English rough, rogh, roȝe, row, rou, ru, ruȝ, ruh, from Old English rūg, rūh, from Proto-Germanic *rūhaz. Cognate with Scots ruch, rouch (rough), Saterland Frisian ruuch, rouch (rough), West Frisian rûch (rough), Low German ruuch (rough), Dutch ruig (rough), German rau(h) (rough).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation, General American) IPA(key): /ɹʌf/
  • Rhymes: -ʌf
  • Homophone: ruff

Adjective

rough (comparative rougher, superlative roughest)

  1. Not smooth; uneven.
    • 1922, Virginia Woolf, Jacob’s Room Chapter 1
      The rock was one of those tremendously solid brown, or rather black, rocks which emerge from the sand like something primitive. Rough with crinkled limpet shells and sparsely strewn with locks of dry seaweed, a small boy has to stretch his legs far apart, and indeed to feel rather heroic, before he gets to the top.
  2. Approximate; hasty or careless; not finished.
  3. Turbulent.
    • 1927-29, M.K. Gandhi, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, translated 1940 by Mahadev Desai, Part I, Chapter xii:
      With my mother’s permission and blessings, I set off exultantly for Bombay, leaving my wife with a baby of a few months. But on arrival there, friends told my brother that the Indian Ocean was rough in June and July, and as this was my first voyage, I should not be allowed to sail until November.
  4. Difficult; trying.
  5. Crude; unrefined
  6. Violent; not careful or subtle
  7. Loud and hoarse; offensive to the ear; harsh; grating.
    • But most by Numbers judge a Poet’s song,
      And smooth or rough, with them
  8. Not polished; uncut; said of a gem.
  9. Harsh-tasting.
  10. (chiefly Britain, colloquial, slang) Somewhat ill; sick
  11. (chiefly Britain, colloquial, slang) Unwell due to alcohol; hungover

Antonyms

  • smooth

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

rough (plural roughs)

  1. The unmowed part of a golf course.
  2. A rude fellow; a coarse bully; a rowdy.
  3. (cricket) A scuffed and roughened area of the pitch, where the bowler’s feet fall, used as a target by spin bowlers because of its unpredictable bounce.
  4. The raw material from which faceted or cabochon gems are created.
  5. A quick sketch, similar to a thumbnail but larger and more detailed, used for artistic brainstorming.
  6. (obsolete) Boisterous weather.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Fletcher to this entry?)
  7. A piece inserted in a horseshoe to keep the animal from slipping.

Derived terms

Translations

Verb

rough (third-person singular simple present roughs, present participle roughing, simple past and past participle roughed)

  1. To create in an approximate form.
  2. (ice hockey) To commit the offense of roughing, i.e. to punch another player.
  3. To render rough; to roughen.
  4. To break in (a horse, etc.), especially for military purposes.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Crabb to this entry?)
  5. To endure primitive conditions.
  6. (transitive) To roughen a horse’s shoes to keep the animal from slipping.

Derived terms

Translations

Adverb

rough (comparative more rough, superlative most rough)

  1. In a rough manner; rudely; roughly.

Derived terms

  • sleep rough

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