have vs hold what difference

what is difference between have and hold

English

Pronunciation

  • (stressed) IPA(key): /hæv/
  • (unstressed) IPA(key): /həv/, /əv/, /ə/
  • (have to): (UK, US) IPA(key): /hæf/, (UK) IPA(key): /hæv/
  • (obsolete, stressed) IPA(key): /heɪv/
  • Rhymes: -æv

Etymology 1

From Middle English haven, from Old English habban, hafian (to have), from Proto-Germanic *habjaną (to have), durative of *habjaną (to lift, take up), from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂pyéti, present tense of *keh₂p- (to take, seize, catch). Cognate with Saterland Frisian hääbe (to have), West Frisian hawwe (to have), Dutch hebben (to have), Afrikaans (to have), Low German hebben, hewwen (to have), German haben (to have), Danish have (to have), Swedish hava (to have), Norwegian Nynorsk ha (to have), Icelandic hafa (to have), Albanian kap (I grab, catch, grip), Latin capiō (take, verb), Russian хапать (xapatʹ, to seize). More at heave.

Since there is no common Indo-European root for a transitive possessive verb have (notice that Latin habeō is not etymologically related to English have), Proto-Indo-European probably lacked the have structure. Instead, the third person forms of be were used, with the possessor in dative case, compare Latin mihi est / sunt, literally to me is / are.

Alternative forms

  • haue (alternative typography, obsolete)
  • hae (Scottish-English)

Verb

have (third-person singular simple present has, present participle having, simple past and past participle had)

  1. (transitive) To possess, own.
  2. (transitive) To hold, as something at someone’s disposal.
    (not necessarily one’s own key)
  3. (transitive) To include as a part, ingredient, or feature.
  4. (transitive) Used to state the existence or presence of someone in a specified relationship with the subject.
  5. (transitive) To partake of (a particular substance, especially food or drink, or action or activity).
  6. (transitive) To be scheduled to attend, undertake or participate in.
  7. To experience, go through, undergo.
  8. To be afflicted with, suffer from.
  9. (auxiliary verb, taking a past participle) Used in forming the perfect aspect.
  10. Used as an interrogative verb before a pronoun to form a tag question, echoing a previous use of ‘have’ as an auxiliary verb or, in certain cases, main verb. (For further discussion, see the appendix English tag questions.)
  11. (auxiliary verb, taking a to-infinitive) See have to.
  12. (transitive) To give birth to.
  13. (usually passive) To obtain.
    The substance you describe can’t be had at any price.
  14. (transitive) To engage in sexual intercourse with.
  15. (transitive) To accept as a romantic partner.
  16. (transitive with bare infinitive) To cause to, by a command, request or invitation.
    • 2002, Matt Cyr, Something to Teach Me: Journal of an American in the Mountains of Haiti, Educa Vision, Inc., →ISBN, 25:
      His English is still in its beginning stages, like my Creole, but he was able to translate some Creole songs that he’s written into English—not the best English, but English nonetheless. He had me correct the translations. That kind of thing is very interesting to me. When I was learning Spanish, I would often take my favorite songs and try to translate them.
  17. (transitive with adjective or adjective-phrase complement) To cause to be.
  18. (transitive with bare infinitive) To be affected by an occurrence. (Used in supplying a topic that is not a verb argument.)
  19. (transitive with adjective or adjective-phrase complement) To depict as being.
  20. (Britain, slang) To defeat in a fight; take.
  21. (Britain, slang) To inflict punishment or retribution on.
  22. (dated outside Ireland) To be able to speak (a language).
  23. To feel or be (especially painfully) aware of.
  24. (informal, often passive) To trick, to deceive.
  25. (transitive, in the negative, often in continuous tenses) To allow; to tolerate.
  26. (transitive, often used in the negative) To believe, buy, be taken in by.
  27. (transitive) To host someone; to take in as a guest.
  28. (transitive) To get a reading, measurement, or result from an instrument or calculation.
  29. (transitive, of a jury) To consider a court proceeding that has been completed; to begin deliberations on a case.
  30. (transitive, birdwatching) To make an observation of (a bird species).
Usage notes

In certain dialects, expressions, and literary use, the lexical have need not use do-support, meaning the sentence Do you have an idea? can also be Have you an idea? This makes have the only lexical verb in Modern English that can function without it, aside from some nonce examples with other verbs in set phrases, as in What say you?, and aside from the verb ‘be’ where this is considered lexical. The auxiliary have which forms the perfect tense never uses do-support, so Have you seen it? cannot be Do you have seen it?.

Conjugation

Additional archaic forms are second-person singular present tense hast, third-person singular present tense hath, present participle haveing, and second-person singular past tense hadst.

Synonyms
  • (engage in sexual intercourse with): have one’s way with, sleep with, take; see also Thesaurus:copulate with
Derived terms
Translations

Noun

have (plural haves)

  1. A wealthy or privileged person.
    • 1981, Sepia:
      A good credit rating can mean the difference between being a have or a have not.
    • 1999, Various, The Haves and Have Nots (Penguin, →ISBN)
      While these stories serve to make us conscious of the implications of being a “have” or a “have-not,” as with all good literature, they do much more than that. They provide a glimpse into lives that we might never encounter elsewhere.
  2. (uncommon) One who has some (contextually specified) thing.
    • 2010, Simon Collin, Dictionary of Wine (A&C Black, →ISBN):
      To find out whether you are a have or a have not, did you understand the malo and Brett sentence a few lines back? If no, this doesn’t make any difference to me, as you are the proud possessor of something the ‘haves’ haven’t got. You know exactly what you like and why you like it. The ‘haves’ pretend to like and understand everything, which by the way is impossible. They deliberate over choosing a bottle in the shop for hours, …
    • 2013, Kelda, Men Under a Microscope (Author House, →ISBN), page 57:
      Generally, I can assure you that a woman’s posterior causes a stir, whether she’s considered a have or a have not. But in most cases, men gravitate toward a pair of prominent gluteus muscles because they find this display appealing. This prominent protrusion can make a pair of jeans look like it was painted on, above just being good to look at. And by the way, it also incites some backshot (a Caribbean term for a well-known sex position) and spanking tendencies during sexual activity …
    • 2014, Derek Prince, Ultimate Security: Finding a Refuge in Difficult Times (Whitaker House, →ISBN):
      The question you must answer is, “Do you have Jesus?” In Jesus, you have eternal life. If you do not have Jesus—if you have not received Him—you do not have “the life.” Are you a “have,” or are you a “have not”? That is a vital decision every person must make—a critical issue you have to resolve for yourself.
Antonyms
  • have-not

See also

  • auxiliary verb
  • past tense
  • perfect tense

References

Etymology 2

From have on (to deceive).

Noun

have (plural haves)

  1. (Australia, New Zealand, informal) A fraud or deception; something misleading.

References

  • have at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams

  • evah

Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Norse hagi, from Proto-Germanic *hagô, cognate with Norwegian hage, Swedish hage, English haw, German Hag, Dutch haag.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /haːvə/, [ˈhæːʋə], [ˈhæːʊ]

Noun

have c (singular definite haven, plural indefinite haver)

  1. garden
  2. orchard
  3. allotment
Inflection

References

  • “have,1” in Den Danske Ordbog

Etymology 2

From Old Norse hafa (to have, wear, carry), from Proto-Germanic *habjaną (to have, hold), cognate with English have, German haben.

Alternative forms

  • ha’

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ha(ːˀ)/, [ˈha], [ˈhæˀ], (formal) IPA(key): /haːvə/, [ˈhæːʋə], [ˈhæːʊ]

Verb

have (present tense har, past tense havde, past participle haft)

  1. (transitive) to have, have got
  2. (auxiliary, with the past participle) have (forms perfect tense)
Inflection
Derived terms
  • have det
  • have for
  • have på
  • have tilbage

References

  • “have,2” in Den Danske Ordbog

Etymology 3

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /haːvə/, [ˈhæːʋə], [ˈhæːʊ]

Noun

have n

  1. indefinite plural of hav

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch have, derived from the verb hebben (to have).

Pronunciation

Noun

have f (plural haven)

  1. property, possession

Derived terms

  • haveloos

Latin

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈha.u̯e/, [ˈhäu̯ɛ]
  • (Affectation) (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈa.u̯eː/, [ˈäu̯eː]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈa.ve/, [ˈɑːvɛ]
  • See pronunciation note at the headword’s page.

Interjection

have

  1. Alternative spelling of ave (hail!)

Middle English

Verb

have

  1. Alternative form of haven (to have)

Norman

Etymology

Borrowed from Old Norse háfr (net), from Proto-Germanic *hēb-, *hēf-, an ablaut form of *hafjaną (to have; take; catch). Related to English dialectal haaf (a pock-net).

Pronunciation

Noun

have f (plural haves)

  1. (Jersey) shrimp net

Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

  • hava (a and split infinitives)
  • ha

Etymology

From Old Norse hafa, from Proto-Germanic *habjaną (to have), durative of Proto-Germanic *habjaną (to lift, take up), from Proto-Indo-European *keh₂p- (to take, seize, catch).

Verb

have (present tense hev, past tense havde, past participle havt, passive infinitive havast, present participle havande, imperative hav)

  1. form removed with the spelling reform of 2012; superseded by ha

Tarantino

Verb

have

  1. third-person singular present indicative of avere


English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: hōld, IPA(key): /həʊld/, [həʊɫd]
  • (General American) enPR: hōld, IPA(key): /hoʊld/, [hoəɫd]
  • Homophone: holed
  • Rhymes: -əʊld

Etymology 1

From Middle English holden, from Old English healdan, from Proto-Germanic *haldaną (to tend, herd), maybe from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to drive) (compare Latin celer (quick), Tocharian B kälts (to goad, drive), Ancient Greek κέλλω (kéllō, to drive), Sanskrit कलयति (kaláyati, he impels)). Cognate to West Frisian hâlde, Low German holden, holen, Dutch houden, German halten, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål holde, Norwegian Nynorsk halda.

Verb

hold (third-person singular simple present holds, present participle holding, simple past held, past participle held or (archaic) holden)

  1. (transitive) To grasp or grip.
  2. (transitive) To contain or store.
  3. (heading) To maintain or keep to a position or state.
    1. (transitive) To have and keep possession of something.
    2. (transitive) To reserve.
    3. (transitive) To cause to wait or delay.
    4. (transitive) To detain.
    5. (intransitive, copulative) To be or remain valid; to apply (usually in the third person).
      • The rule holds in land as well as all other commodities.
    6. (intransitive, copulative) To keep oneself in a particular state.
    7. (transitive) To impose restraint upon; to limit in motion or action; to bind legally or morally; to confine; to restrain.
      • 1646, Richard Crashaw, Vpon the Death of Mr. Herrys
        Death! what do’st? O, hold thy blow.
    8. (transitive) To bear, carry, or manage.
    9. (intransitive, chiefly imperative) Not to move; to halt; to stop.
    10. (intransitive) Not to give way; not to part or become separated; to remain unbroken or unsubdued.
    11. To remain continent; to control an excretory bodily function.
  4. (heading) To maintain or keep to particular opinions, promises, actions.
    1. (transitive) To maintain, to consider, to opine.
      • 1776, Thomas Jefferson et al., United States Declaration of Independence:
        We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
    2. (transitive) To bind (someone) to a consequence of his or her actions.
    3. To maintain in being or action; to carry on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to continue; to sustain.
      • Hold not thy peace, and be not still.
    4. To accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, openly or privately; to persist in, as a purpose; to maintain; to sustain.
      • Stand fast and hold the traditions which ye have been taught.
    5. (archaic) To restrain oneself; to refrain; to hold back.
  5. (tennis, transitive, intransitive) To win one’s own service game.
  6. To take place, to occur.
    • 1824, James Hogg, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, Oxford 2010, p. 9:
      He came into the hall where the wedding-festival had held […].
  7. To organise an event or meeting (usually in passive voice).
  8. (archaic) To derive right or title.
    • 1665, John Dryden, The Indian Emperour
      My crown is absolute, and holds of none.
    • 1817, William Hazlitt, The Round Table
      His imagination holds immediately from nature.
  9. (imperative) In a food or drink order at an informal restaurant etc., requesting that a component normally included in that order be omitted.
  10. (slang, intransitive) To be in possession of illicit drugs for sale.
    • 1933, Goat Laven, Rough Stuff: The Life Story of a Gangster (page 122)
      [] first thing clients would say to me would be ‘Are you holding?’ I’d say yes if we had our supply and no if it was dangerous.
Synonyms
  • (grasp or grip): clasp, grasp, grip; See also Thesaurus:grasp
  • (have and keep possession of something): own; See also Thesaurus:possess
  • (not to move): See also Thesaurus:stop
  • (not to give way): See also Thesaurus:persevere
  • (restrain oneself): See also Thesaurus:desist
  • (take place): happen; See also Thesaurus:happen
Antonyms
  • release
Derived terms
Translations

Noun

hold (plural holds)

  1. A grasp or grip.
    Keep a firm hold on the handlebars.
  2. An act or instance of holding.
    Can I have a hold of the baby?
  3. A place where animals are held for safety
  4. An order that something is to be reserved or delayed, limiting or preventing how it can be dealt with.
    Senator X placed a hold on the bill, then went to the library and placed a hold on a book.
    • 2008, R. Michael Gordon, The Space Shuttle Program: How NASA Lost Its Way (page 98)
      Because there were no “launch commit criteria” regarding surface booster temperatures that might cause a hold on the launch, the ice team did not report the temperatures to the launch controllers.
  5. Something reserved or kept.
    We have a hold here for you.
  6. Power over someone or something.
  7. The ability to persist.
  8. The property of maintaining the shape of styled hair.
  9. (wrestling) A position or grip used to control the opponent.
    He got him in a tight hold and pinned him to the mat.
  10. (exercise) An exercise involving holding a position for a set time
  11. (gambling) The percentage the house wins on a gamble, the house or bookmaker’s hold.
    The House Hold on the game is 10,000, this is the amount of decision or risk the house wishes to assume.
  12. (gambling) The wager amount, the total hold.
    As of Monday night the total Melbourne Cup hold was $848,015
  13. (tennis) An instance of holding one’s service game, as opposed to being broken.
  14. The part of an object one is intended to grasp, or anything one can use for grasping with hands or feet.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      So I felt my way down the passage back to the vault, and recked not of the darkness, nor of Blackbeard and his crew, if only I could lay my lips to liquor. Thus I groped about the barrels till near the top of the stack my hand struck on the spile of a keg, and drawing it, I got my mouth to the hold.
  15. A fruit machine feature allowing one or more of the reels to remain fixed while the others spin.
  16. (video games, dated) A pause facility.
    • 1983, New Generation Software, Knot in 3D (video game instruction leaflet)
      A hold facility is available; H holds, and S restarts.
    • 1987?, Imagine Software, Legend of Kage (video game instruction leaflet)
      SCREEN 5 — Perhaps the toughest — going like the clappers sometimes works but generally you’ll have to be smarter than that. If things get a little too hectic and you don’t even have time to reach the HOLD key, try taking a short rest below the top of the stairs.
  17. The queueing system on telephones and similar communication systems which maintains a connection when all lines are busy.
    • 2003, Daniel Jackson, Paul Fulberg, Sonic Branding: An Essential Guide to the Art and Science of Sonic Branding, Palgrave Macmillan →ISBN, page 6
      Given that there is an average on-hold time of more than five minutes while enquiries are being dealt with, the telephone hold system provided the best opportunity.
    • 2005, Lorraine Grubbs-West, Lessons in Loyalty: How Southwest Airlines Does it : an Insider’s View, CornerStone Leadership Inst →ISBN, page 56
      Even the “on-hold” messages on Southwest’s telephone system are humorous, ensuring anyone inconvenienced by the hold is entertained.
    • 2012, Tanner Ezell, Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8: Expert Administration Cookbook, Packt Publishing Ltd →ISBN
      Note. After the device downloads its new configuration file, we can test placing a call on hold and the generic hold music will be heard.
  18. (baseball) A statistic awarded to a relief pitcher who is not still pitching at the end of the game and who records at least one out and maintains a lead for his team.
  19. (aviation) A region of airspace reserved for aircraft being kept in a holding pattern.
Synonyms

(exercise): isometric exercise

Derived terms
Translations

See also

  • behold

References

Etymology 2

Alteration (due to hold) of hole. Cognate with Dutch hol (hole, cave, den, cavity, cargo hold), Dutch holte (cavity, hollow, den).

Noun

hold (plural holds)

  1. (nautical, aviation) The cargo area of a ship or aircraft (often holds or cargo hold).
Derived terms
  • forehold
Translations

Etymology 3

From Middle English hold, holde, from Old English hold (gracious, friendly, kind, favorable, true, faithful, loyal, devout, acceptable, pleasant), from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz (favourable, gracious, loyal), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to tend, incline, bend, tip). Cognate with German hold (gracious, friendly, sympathetic, grateful), Danish and Swedish huld (fair, kindly, gracious), Icelandic hollur (faithful, dedicated, loyal), German Huld (grace, favour).

Adjective

hold (comparative more hold, superlative most hold)

  1. (obsolete) Gracious; friendly; faithful; true.

Anagrams

  • dhol, hodl

Danish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈhʌlˀ]

Etymology 1

From Old Norse hald (grip, power, hold). Also see holde (to hold).

Noun

hold n (singular definite holdet, plural indefinite hold)

  1. team (group of persons working or playing together)
  2. class (group of students taught together)
  3. distance, side (only with the prepositions or fra and an adjective)
  4. truth
  5. pain (in the muscles)
  6. (rare) hold
Inflection

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

hold

  1. imperative of holde

German

Etymology

From Middle High German holt, from Old High German hold, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz. Cognates include Gothic ???????????????????? (hulþs, clement) and Old Norse hollr ( > Danish huld).

Pronunciation

Adjective

hold (comparative holder, superlative am holdesten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) friendly, comely, graceful
    • 1907, Carl Spitteler, Die Mädchenfeinde, Siebentes Kapitel, Beim Narrenſtudenten
      • Um aber auf deinen holden Kadettengeneral zurückzukommen, ſo will ich dir, weil du mir dein Geheimnis anvertraut haſt, auch etwas Geheimnisvolles verraten […]

Declension

Further reading

  • “hold” in Duden online

Hungarian

Etymology

From Proto-Uralic *kuŋe. Cognates include Hungarian (month), Finnish and Estonian kuu.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈhold]
  • Hyphenation: hold
  • Rhymes: -old

Noun

hold (plural holdak)

  1. moon, natural satellite
  2. unit of surface area, originally meant the same as acre, has different kinds ranging from 3500 m² to 8400 m²
  3. (attributive usage) lunar

Usage notes

Some astronomical and geographical terms have both a lowercase (common noun) and a capitalized (proper noun) form. For föld (ground, soil; Earth)―​Föld (Earth), hold (moon, satellite; Moon)―​Hold (our Moon), and nap (day; sun; Sun)―​Nap (our Sun), the lowercase forms are used in the everyday sense and the capitalized forms in the astronomical sense. In other similar pairs, the former refers to generic sense, and the latter specifies the best known referent: egyenlítő (equator)―​Egyenlítő (Equator), naprendszer (solar system)―​Naprendszer (Solar System), and tejút (galaxy, literally “milky way”, but galaxis and galaktika are more common)―​Tejút (Milky Way).[6][7][8]

Declension

Derived terms

Further reading

  • (moon): hold in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (acre): hold in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Icelandic

Etymology

From Old Norse hold, from Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognate with Swedish hull.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [hɔlt]
  • Rhymes: -ɔlt

Noun

hold n (genitive singular holds, no plural)

  1. flesh
    • Isaiah 40 (Icelandic, English)
      Heyr, einhver segir: “Kalla þú!” Og ég svara: “Hvað skal ég kalla?” “Allt hold er gras og allur yndisleikur þess sem blóm vallarins. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, þegar Drottinn andar á þau. Sannlega, mennirnir eru gras. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, en orð Guðs vors stendur stöðugt eilíflega.”

      A voice says, “Cry out.” And I said, “What shall I cry?” “All flesh are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field. The grass withers and the flowers fall, because the breath of the LORD blows on them. Surely the people are grass. The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God stands forever.”

Declension


Middle English

Etymology

From Old English hold.

Adjective

hold

  1. friendly, faithful

Noun

hold

  1. carcase, flesh

Related terms

  • holdeste, unhold, holdelike, holdoþ

Norwegian Bokmål

Verb

hold

  1. imperative of holde

Derived terms

  • (of noun) dyrehold
  • (of noun) kosthold
  • (of noun) husdyrhold

Old English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /xold/, [hoɫd]

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognates include Old Norse hold (flesh) (Icelandic hold, Swedish hull), and (from Indo-European) Old Irish colainn, Welsh celain.

Noun

hold n (nominative plural hold)

  1. dead body; carcass
Declension

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz, a variant on a root meaning ‘lean, incline’ (compare Old English heald, hieldan).

Cognates include Old Frisian hold, Old Saxon hold, Old High German hold (German hold), Old Norse hollr (Danish huld, Swedish huld), Gothic ???????????????????? (hulþs).

Adjective

hold (comparative holdra, superlative holdost) (+ dative)

  1. gracious, loyal, kind
Declension

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz

Adjective

hold

  1. friendly , loyal

Derived terms

  • huldī
  • hulda, holda

Descendants

  • German: hold

Spanish

Noun

hold m (plural holds)

  1. (baseball) hold

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