hold vs keep what difference

what is difference between hold and keep

English

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) enPR: hōld, IPA(key): /həʊld/, [həʊɫd]
  • (General American) enPR: hōld, IPA(key): /hoʊld/, [hoəɫd]
  • Homophone: holed
  • Rhymes: -əʊld

Etymology 1

From Middle English holden, from Old English healdan, from Proto-Germanic *haldaną (to tend, herd), maybe from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to drive) (compare Latin celer (quick), Tocharian B kälts (to goad, drive), Ancient Greek κέλλω (kéllō, to drive), Sanskrit कलयति (kaláyati, he impels)). Cognate to West Frisian hâlde, Low German holden, holen, Dutch houden, German halten, Danish and Norwegian Bokmål holde, Norwegian Nynorsk halda.

Verb

hold (third-person singular simple present holds, present participle holding, simple past held, past participle held or (archaic) holden)

  1. (transitive) To grasp or grip.
  2. (transitive) To contain or store.
  3. (heading) To maintain or keep to a position or state.
    1. (transitive) To have and keep possession of something.
    2. (transitive) To reserve.
    3. (transitive) To cause to wait or delay.
    4. (transitive) To detain.
    5. (intransitive, copulative) To be or remain valid; to apply (usually in the third person).
      • The rule holds in land as well as all other commodities.
    6. (intransitive, copulative) To keep oneself in a particular state.
    7. (transitive) To impose restraint upon; to limit in motion or action; to bind legally or morally; to confine; to restrain.
      • 1646, Richard Crashaw, Vpon the Death of Mr. Herrys
        Death! what do’st? O, hold thy blow.
    8. (transitive) To bear, carry, or manage.
    9. (intransitive, chiefly imperative) Not to move; to halt; to stop.
    10. (intransitive) Not to give way; not to part or become separated; to remain unbroken or unsubdued.
    11. To remain continent; to control an excretory bodily function.
  4. (heading) To maintain or keep to particular opinions, promises, actions.
    1. (transitive) To maintain, to consider, to opine.
      • 1776, Thomas Jefferson et al., United States Declaration of Independence:
        We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
    2. (transitive) To bind (someone) to a consequence of his or her actions.
    3. To maintain in being or action; to carry on; to prosecute, as a course of conduct or an argument; to continue; to sustain.
      • Hold not thy peace, and be not still.
    4. To accept, as an opinion; to be the adherent of, openly or privately; to persist in, as a purpose; to maintain; to sustain.
      • Stand fast and hold the traditions which ye have been taught.
    5. (archaic) To restrain oneself; to refrain; to hold back.
  5. (tennis, transitive, intransitive) To win one’s own service game.
  6. To take place, to occur.
    • 1824, James Hogg, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, Oxford 2010, p. 9:
      He came into the hall where the wedding-festival had held […].
  7. To organise an event or meeting (usually in passive voice).
  8. (archaic) To derive right or title.
    • 1665, John Dryden, The Indian Emperour
      My crown is absolute, and holds of none.
    • 1817, William Hazlitt, The Round Table
      His imagination holds immediately from nature.
  9. (imperative) In a food or drink order at an informal restaurant etc., requesting that a component normally included in that order be omitted.
  10. (slang, intransitive) To be in possession of illicit drugs for sale.
    • 1933, Goat Laven, Rough Stuff: The Life Story of a Gangster (page 122)
      [] first thing clients would say to me would be ‘Are you holding?’ I’d say yes if we had our supply and no if it was dangerous.
Synonyms
  • (grasp or grip): clasp, grasp, grip; See also Thesaurus:grasp
  • (have and keep possession of something): own; See also Thesaurus:possess
  • (not to move): See also Thesaurus:stop
  • (not to give way): See also Thesaurus:persevere
  • (restrain oneself): See also Thesaurus:desist
  • (take place): happen; See also Thesaurus:happen
Antonyms
  • release
Derived terms
Translations

Noun

hold (plural holds)

  1. A grasp or grip.
    Keep a firm hold on the handlebars.
  2. An act or instance of holding.
    Can I have a hold of the baby?
  3. A place where animals are held for safety
  4. An order that something is to be reserved or delayed, limiting or preventing how it can be dealt with.
    Senator X placed a hold on the bill, then went to the library and placed a hold on a book.
    • 2008, R. Michael Gordon, The Space Shuttle Program: How NASA Lost Its Way (page 98)
      Because there were no “launch commit criteria” regarding surface booster temperatures that might cause a hold on the launch, the ice team did not report the temperatures to the launch controllers.
  5. Something reserved or kept.
    We have a hold here for you.
  6. Power over someone or something.
  7. The ability to persist.
  8. The property of maintaining the shape of styled hair.
  9. (wrestling) A position or grip used to control the opponent.
    He got him in a tight hold and pinned him to the mat.
  10. (exercise) An exercise involving holding a position for a set time
  11. (gambling) The percentage the house wins on a gamble, the house or bookmaker’s hold.
    The House Hold on the game is 10,000, this is the amount of decision or risk the house wishes to assume.
  12. (gambling) The wager amount, the total hold.
    As of Monday night the total Melbourne Cup hold was $848,015
  13. (tennis) An instance of holding one’s service game, as opposed to being broken.
  14. The part of an object one is intended to grasp, or anything one can use for grasping with hands or feet.
    • 1898, J. Meade Falkner, Moonfleet Chapter 4
      So I felt my way down the passage back to the vault, and recked not of the darkness, nor of Blackbeard and his crew, if only I could lay my lips to liquor. Thus I groped about the barrels till near the top of the stack my hand struck on the spile of a keg, and drawing it, I got my mouth to the hold.
  15. A fruit machine feature allowing one or more of the reels to remain fixed while the others spin.
  16. (video games, dated) A pause facility.
    • 1983, New Generation Software, Knot in 3D (video game instruction leaflet)
      A hold facility is available; H holds, and S restarts.
    • 1987?, Imagine Software, Legend of Kage (video game instruction leaflet)
      SCREEN 5 — Perhaps the toughest — going like the clappers sometimes works but generally you’ll have to be smarter than that. If things get a little too hectic and you don’t even have time to reach the HOLD key, try taking a short rest below the top of the stairs.
  17. The queueing system on telephones and similar communication systems which maintains a connection when all lines are busy.
    • 2003, Daniel Jackson, Paul Fulberg, Sonic Branding: An Essential Guide to the Art and Science of Sonic Branding, Palgrave Macmillan →ISBN, page 6
      Given that there is an average on-hold time of more than five minutes while enquiries are being dealt with, the telephone hold system provided the best opportunity.
    • 2005, Lorraine Grubbs-West, Lessons in Loyalty: How Southwest Airlines Does it : an Insider’s View, CornerStone Leadership Inst →ISBN, page 56
      Even the “on-hold” messages on Southwest’s telephone system are humorous, ensuring anyone inconvenienced by the hold is entertained.
    • 2012, Tanner Ezell, Cisco Unified Communications Manager 8: Expert Administration Cookbook, Packt Publishing Ltd →ISBN
      Note. After the device downloads its new configuration file, we can test placing a call on hold and the generic hold music will be heard.
  18. (baseball) A statistic awarded to a relief pitcher who is not still pitching at the end of the game and who records at least one out and maintains a lead for his team.
  19. (aviation) A region of airspace reserved for aircraft being kept in a holding pattern.
Synonyms

(exercise): isometric exercise

Derived terms
Translations

See also

  • behold

References

Etymology 2

Alteration (due to hold) of hole. Cognate with Dutch hol (hole, cave, den, cavity, cargo hold), Dutch holte (cavity, hollow, den).

Noun

hold (plural holds)

  1. (nautical, aviation) The cargo area of a ship or aircraft (often holds or cargo hold).
Derived terms
  • forehold
Translations

Etymology 3

From Middle English hold, holde, from Old English hold (gracious, friendly, kind, favorable, true, faithful, loyal, devout, acceptable, pleasant), from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz (favourable, gracious, loyal), from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (to tend, incline, bend, tip). Cognate with German hold (gracious, friendly, sympathetic, grateful), Danish and Swedish huld (fair, kindly, gracious), Icelandic hollur (faithful, dedicated, loyal), German Huld (grace, favour).

Adjective

hold (comparative more hold, superlative most hold)

  1. (obsolete) Gracious; friendly; faithful; true.

Anagrams

  • dhol, hodl

Danish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈhʌlˀ]

Etymology 1

From Old Norse hald (grip, power, hold). Also see holde (to hold).

Noun

hold n (singular definite holdet, plural indefinite hold)

  1. team (group of persons working or playing together)
  2. class (group of students taught together)
  3. distance, side (only with the prepositions or fra and an adjective)
  4. truth
  5. pain (in the muscles)
  6. (rare) hold
Inflection

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

hold

  1. imperative of holde

German

Etymology

From Middle High German holt, from Old High German hold, from Proto-Germanic *hulþaz. Cognates include Gothic ???????????????????? (hulþs, clement) and Old Norse hollr ( > Danish huld).

Pronunciation

Adjective

hold (comparative holder, superlative am holdesten)

  1. (archaic, poetic) friendly, comely, graceful
    • 1907, Carl Spitteler, Die Mädchenfeinde, Siebentes Kapitel, Beim Narrenſtudenten
      • Um aber auf deinen holden Kadettengeneral zurückzukommen, ſo will ich dir, weil du mir dein Geheimnis anvertraut haſt, auch etwas Geheimnisvolles verraten […]

Declension

Further reading

  • “hold” in Duden online

Hungarian

Etymology

From Proto-Uralic *kuŋe. Cognates include Hungarian (month), Finnish and Estonian kuu.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [ˈhold]
  • Hyphenation: hold
  • Rhymes: -old

Noun

hold (plural holdak)

  1. moon, natural satellite
  2. unit of surface area, originally meant the same as acre, has different kinds ranging from 3500 m² to 8400 m²
  3. (attributive usage) lunar

Usage notes

Some astronomical and geographical terms have both a lowercase (common noun) and a capitalized (proper noun) form. For föld (ground, soil; Earth)―​Föld (Earth), hold (moon, satellite; Moon)―​Hold (our Moon), and nap (day; sun; Sun)―​Nap (our Sun), the lowercase forms are used in the everyday sense and the capitalized forms in the astronomical sense. In other similar pairs, the former refers to generic sense, and the latter specifies the best known referent: egyenlítő (equator)―​Egyenlítő (Equator), naprendszer (solar system)―​Naprendszer (Solar System), and tejút (galaxy, literally “milky way”, but galaxis and galaktika are more common)―​Tejút (Milky Way).[6][7][8]

Declension

Derived terms

Further reading

  • (moon): hold in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (acre): hold in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (’The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN

Icelandic

Etymology

From Old Norse hold, from Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognate with Swedish hull.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [hɔlt]
  • Rhymes: -ɔlt

Noun

hold n (genitive singular holds, no plural)

  1. flesh
    • Isaiah 40 (Icelandic, English)
      Heyr, einhver segir: “Kalla þú!” Og ég svara: “Hvað skal ég kalla?” “Allt hold er gras og allur yndisleikur þess sem blóm vallarins. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, þegar Drottinn andar á þau. Sannlega, mennirnir eru gras. Grasið visnar, blómin fölna, en orð Guðs vors stendur stöðugt eilíflega.”

      A voice says, “Cry out.” And I said, “What shall I cry?” “All flesh are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field. The grass withers and the flowers fall, because the breath of the LORD blows on them. Surely the people are grass. The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God stands forever.”

Declension


Middle English

Etymology

From Old English hold.

Adjective

hold

  1. friendly, faithful

Noun

hold

  1. carcase, flesh

Related terms

  • holdeste, unhold, holdelike, holdoþ

Norwegian Bokmål

Verb

hold

  1. imperative of holde

Derived terms

  • (of noun) dyrehold
  • (of noun) kosthold
  • (of noun) husdyrhold

Old English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /xold/, [hoɫd]

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *huldą, from Proto-Indo-European *kol-, *kwol-. Cognates include Old Norse hold (flesh) (Icelandic hold, Swedish hull), and (from Indo-European) Old Irish colainn, Welsh celain.

Noun

hold n (nominative plural hold)

  1. dead body; carcass
Declension

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz, a variant on a root meaning ‘lean, incline’ (compare Old English heald, hieldan).

Cognates include Old Frisian hold, Old Saxon hold, Old High German hold (German hold), Old Norse hollr (Danish huld, Swedish huld), Gothic ???????????????????? (hulþs).

Adjective

hold (comparative holdra, superlative holdost) (+ dative)

  1. gracious, loyal, kind
Declension

Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *hulþaz

Adjective

hold

  1. friendly , loyal

Derived terms

  • huldī
  • hulda, holda

Descendants

  • German: hold

Spanish

Noun

hold m (plural holds)

  1. (baseball) hold


English

Pronunciation

  • enPR: kēp, IPA(key): /kiːp/
  • Rhymes: -iːp

Etymology

From Middle English kepen (to keep, guard, look after, watch), from Old English cēpan (to seize, hold, observe), from Proto-Germanic *kōpijaną (compare West Frisian kypje (to look)), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵab-, *ǵāb- (to look after) (compare Lithuanian žẽbti (to eat reluctantly), Russian забо́та (zabóta, care, worry)).

Verb

keep (third-person singular simple present keeps, present participle keeping, simple past and past participle kept)

  1. To continue in (a course or mode of action); not to intermit or fall from; to uphold or maintain.
    • c. 1599, William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, Act V, Scene 1,[1]
      Both day and night did we keep company.
    • c. 1749, Tobias Smollett, The Regicide, Act V, Scene 5, in Plays and Poems Written by T. Smollett, M.D., London: T. Evans and R. Baldwin, 1777, p. 106,[2]
      Within the portal as I kept my watch,
  2. (heading, transitive) To hold the status of something.
    1. To maintain possession of.
    2. (ditransitive) To maintain the condition of; to preserve in a certain state.
    3. (transitive) To record transactions, accounts, or events in.
    4. (transitive) To enter (accounts, records, etc.) in a book.
    5. (archaic) To remain in, to be confined to.
      • 1605, William Shakespeare, King Lear, III.ii,
        The wrathful skies / Gallow the very wanderers of the dark / And make them keep their caves.
      • 1789, John Moore, Zeluco, Valancourt 2008, p. 71:
        The following day she was so ill that she kept her bed; the husband went not once to enquire for her, nor did he send any message: he also kept his apartment, and was heard walking backwards and forwards with a hurried pace the whole of that day.
    6. To restrain.
    7. (with from) To watch over, look after, guard, protect.
      • 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, II.viii:
        cursse on thy cruell hond, / That twise hath sped; yet shall it not thee keepe / From the third brunt of this my fatall brond [].
    8. To supply with necessities and financially support a person.
    9. (of living things) To raise; to care for.
      • 1914, Robert Joos, Success with Hens, Forbes & company, p.217:
        Of course boys are boys and need watching, but there is little watching necessary when they keep chickens.
    10. To maintain (an establishment or institution); to conduct; to manage.
      • c. 1599, William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, Act III, Scene 2,[4]
        like a pedant that keeps a school
      • 1630, John Hayward, The Life, and Raigne of King Edward the Sixt, London: John Partridge, p. 114,[5]
        They were honourably accompanied and with great estate brought to London, where euery of them kept house by himselfe.
      • At half-past nine on this Saturday evening, the parlour of the Salutation Inn, High Holborn, contained most of its customary visitors. [] In former days every tavern of repute kept such a room for its own select circle, a club, or society, of habitués, who met every evening, for a pipe and a cheerful glass.
    11. To have habitually in stock for sale.
  3. (heading, intransitive) To hold or be held in a state.
    1. (obsolete) To reside for a time; to lodge; to dwell.
      • c. 1593, William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Act V, Scene 2,[6]
        Knock at his study, where, they say, he keeps,
        To ruminate strange plots of dire revenge;
    2. To continue.
    3. To remain edible or otherwise usable.
      • 1707, John Mortimer, The Whole Art of Husbandry
        If the malt be not thoroughly dried, the ale it makes will not keep.
    4. (copulative) To remain in a state.
  4. (obsolete) To wait for, keep watch for.
  5. (intransitive, cricket) To act as wicket-keeper.
  6. (intransitive, obsolete) To take care; to be solicitous; to watch.
    • c. 1530, William Tyndale, A Pathway into the holy Scripture in The Whole Workes of W. Tyndall, Iohn Frith, and Doct. Barnes, London: John Day, 1573, p. 384,[7]
      [] kepe that the lustes choke not the word of God that is sowen in vs,
  7. (intransitive, obsolete) To be in session; to take place.
  8. (transitive) To observe; to adhere to; to fulfill; not to swerve from or violate.
    • 1611, King James Version of the Bible, 2 Timothy 4.7,[8]
      I have kept the faith:
    • 1667, John Milton, Paradise Lost, London, Book 7, lines 1271-1272,[9]
      Be strong, live happie, and love, but first of all
      Him whom to love is to obey, and keep
      His great command;
  9. (transitive, dated, by extension) To visit (a place) often; to frequent.
    • c. 1608, John Fletcher, The Faithful Shepherdess, Act III, Scene 1,[10]
      [] ’tis hallowed ground;
      No Maid seeks here her strayed Cow, or Sheep,
      Fairies, and fawns, and satyrs do it keep:
  10. (transitive, dated) To observe or celebrate (a holiday).

Synonyms

  • (maintain possession of): retain
  • (maintain the condition of): preserve, protect
  • (to reside for a time): See also Thesaurus:sojourn

Derived terms

Pages starting with “keep”.

Related terms

  • for keeps

Translations

Noun

keep (countable and uncountable, plural keeps)

  1. (historical) The main tower of a castle or fortress, located within the castle walls.
    Synonym: donjon
  2. The food or money required to keep someone alive and healthy; one’s support, maintenance.
  3. (obsolete) The act or office of keeping; custody; guard; care; heed; charge; notice.
  4. The state of being kept; hence, the resulting condition; case.
  5. (obsolete) That which is kept in charge; a charge.
  6. (engineering) A cap for holding something, such as a journal box, in place.

Derived terms

  • earn one’s keep

Translations

See also

  • donjon

Anagrams

  • Ekpe, PEEK, Peek, Peke, kepe, peek, peke

Dutch

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /keːp/
  • Hyphenation: keep
  • Rhymes: -eːp
  • Homophone: cape

Noun

keep f (plural kepen, diminutive keepje n)

  1. notch, carven mark
    Synonyms: inkeping, kerf

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “cf. West Frisian “keepfink”, prob. a borrowing”)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /keːp/
  • Hyphenation: keep
  • Rhymes: -eːp
  • Homophone: cape

Noun

keep m (plural kepen, diminutive keepje n)

  1. brambling, Fringilla montifringilla

Etymology 3

Shortening of keeper.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /kip/
  • Hyphenation: keep
  • Rhymes: -ip
  • Homophone: kiep

Noun

keep m (plural keeps)

  1. (ball games, chiefly soccer, colloquial) goalkeeper

Estonian

Etymology

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

keep (genitive keebi, partitive keepi)

  1. cloak, capote, gaberdine

Declension


Middle English

Noun

keep

  1. notice; note; observance
    take keep — “take note”
    • And shame it is, if a preest take keep
      A shiten shepherde and a clene sheep

Yucatec Maya

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /keːp˩/

Noun

keep (plural keepoʼob)

  1. (anatomy) penis

Synonyms

  • toon

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