however vs notwithstanding what difference

what is difference between however and notwithstanding

English

Etymology

From Middle English however, how-ever, how-evere, equivalent to how +‎ ever. Compare also Middle English how-as-evere and howsoevere, how-so-evere (howsoever).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /hɑʊˈɛvə/
  • (US) enPR: houĕvʹər, IPA(key): /haʊˈɛvɚ/
  • (NYC) IPA(key): /hɑwɛvə/
  • Rhymes: -ɛvə(r)
  • Hyphenation: how‧ev‧er

Adverb

however (not comparable)

  1. Nevertheless; yet, still; in spite of (that).
    She wanted to go; however, she decided against it.
  2. (degree) To whatever degree or extent
  3. (manner) In whatever way or manner.
  4. An emphatic form of how.
    However were you able to do it?
  5. (obsolete) In any case, at any rate, at all events.
    • c. 1680, John Tillotson:
      Our chief end and highest interest is happiness : And this is happiness to be freed from all (if it may) [or] however from the greatest evils.

Synonyms

  • (nevertheless): nonetheless, notwithstanding, that said, still and all; see also Thesaurus:nevertheless
  • (to whatever degree): ad lib, howsoever, howso
  • (emphatic howin whatever manner): anyhow, howsoever, howso
  • (emphatic how): how + the dickens (see Thesaurus:the dickens)
  • (in any case): after all, anyway; see also Thesaurus:regardless

Translations

Conjunction

however

  1. In whatever way or manner.
    she offered to help however she could
  2. (proscribed) Although, though, but, yet.

Usage notes

  • Both conjunctive uses of “however” are identical to adverbial uses except in punctuation (when written) and in prosody (when spoken). Hence, the following proscribed sentence:
    is equivalent to the following accepted one:
    which can also be written in two sentences::
    they are functionally equivalent to:
    • He told me not to do it, but I did it.
  • In particular, when used as a conjunction in this sense, however always appears between the clauses it connects; it does not introduce a subordinate clause that can be moved to the start of an independent clause, but simply coordinates two independent clauses.

References

  • however in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • “however” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  • “however (degree)” in Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
  • “however (despite)” in Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
  • “however (way)” in Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
  • “however”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  • Oxford English Dictionary, second edition (1989)
  • Random House Webster’s Unabridged Electronic Dictionary (1987-1996)

Anagrams

  • everwho, whoever


English

Alternative forms

  • noughtwithstanding (obsolete and rare)
  • nonwithstanding (misconstruction)

Etymology

From Middle English notwithstandinge, notwithstondyng, natwithstandyng, equivalent to not +‎ withstanding. Compare Middle English notgainstonding, not aȝenstondynge, of similar meaning and formation.

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˌnɒtwɪðˈstændɪŋ/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˌnɑtwɪθˈstændɪŋ/
  • Rhymes: -ændɪŋ

Adverb

notwithstanding (not comparable)

  1. Nevertheless, all the same.
    He, notwithstanding, persisted in his inquiries.
    • 1599, William Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor, i 4:
      But notwithstanding, man,
      I’ll do you your master what good I can;
    • 1789, United States Contitution, Supremacy Clause:
      This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:notwithstanding.

Synonyms

  • (nevertheless): all the same, nevertheless, nonetheless, still, anyway, after all, regardless, yet; see also Thesaurus:nevertheless

Translations

Conjunction

notwithstanding

  1. Although.
    • 1724, Daniel Defoe, Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress, ch. 30:
      Upon which Amy had said, that notwithstanding I was angry with her and had used her so hardly for saying something about her of the same kind, yet there was an absolute necessity of securing her and removing her out of the way;
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:notwithstanding.

Usage notes

  • The conjunction is sometimes expressed in the form notwithstanding that, as in “the front was nearly four miles in advance, notwithstanding that the men marched three abreast” (Dickens, Barnaby Rudge, ch. 49. See citations page.).

Translations

Preposition

notwithstanding

  1. In spite of, despite.
    • 1675, Richard Allestree, The Causes of the Decay of Christian Piety
      Those on whom Christ bestowed miraculous cures were so transported that their gratitude made them, notwithstanding his prohibition, proclaim the wonders he had done.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:notwithstanding.

Synonyms

  • regardless of, maugre (obsolete); see also Thesaurus:despite

Postposition

notwithstanding

  1. In spite of, despite.
    • 2014, Richard Rae, “Manchester United humbled by MK Dons after Will Grigg hits double”, The Guardian, 26 August 2014:
      Van Gaal’s dismissal of his ability to play a central role notwithstanding, Shinji Kagawa began playing just behind the strikers Danny Welbeck and Javier Hernández.
    • 1679Habeas Corpus Act, section 11
      And be it declared and enacted by the authority aforesaid, that an Habeas Corpus, according to the true intent and meaning of this act, may be directed and seen in any county Palatine, the Cinque Ports, or other privileged places within the Kindgom of England, dominion of Wales, or town of Berwick upon Tweed, and the islands of Jersey and Guernsey; any law or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:notwithstanding.

Synonyms

  • (in spite of): despite, in spite of, maugre (obsolete)

Derived terms

  • notwithstanding clause (Canada)

Translations

Noun

notwithstanding (plural notwithstandings)

  1. An instance of the word “notwithstanding”, often characteristic of legalese.
    • 2003, Banesh Hoffmann, The Tyranny of Testing (page 53)
      It is not for nothing that our language has its ifs and buts, its yets and howevers, its neverthelesses and notwithstandings, its possiblies and probablies and perhapses, and its on-the-other-hands.
    • 2004, Trevor Carolan, Down in the Valley: Writing in British Columbia (page 107)
      Letters from the English usually contained very formally typed documents with lots of heretofores and whereases and notwithstandings.
    • 2010, Richard Marcinko, Red Cell (page 149)
      The agreements were filled with wheretofores and herebys and hereafters and notwithstandings.

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