Previous vs Prior what difference

what is difference between Previous and Prior

English

Alternative forms

  • prævious (archaic)

Etymology

From Latin praevius.

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈpɹivi.əs/
  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈpɹiːvɪəs/

Adjective

previous (comparative more previous, superlative most previous)

  1. (not comparable) Prior; occurring before something else, either in time or order.
    He is no better than the previous Prime Minister.
  2. (informal) Premature; acting or occurring too soon.

Synonyms

  • former
  • late
  • old
  • See also Thesaurus:former

Antonyms

  • future
  • following
  • next
  • succeeding

Derived terms

  • previous to
  • previously
  • previously disadvantaged
  • previousness

Translations

Noun

previous (countable and uncountable, plural previouses)

  1. (informal, Britain) An existing criminal record (short for “previous convictions”)
    Synonym: form
    It turned out the shoplifter had a lot of previous.
    • 1994, William J. Caunitz, Three complete novels: Black Sand; Suspects; One Police Plaza
      Simmons had eight previouses: robberies, burglaries, a couple of felonious assaults.
  2. (informal, Britain) A track record of similar behaviour.
    • November 2 2014, Daniel Taylor, “Sergio Agüero strike wins derby for Manchester City against 10-man United,” guardian.co.uk
      For that Smalling will have to do his time grazing in the scapegoat’s paddock because his contribution here supplied hard evidence of a player lacking the football intelligence that is needed at the highest level. He has previous on that front and it is difficult to find any mitigation for the way he scythed down James Milner when the first rule for a defender on a yellow card is not to dive in unless it is absolutely necessary.

Anagrams

  • pervious, viperous


English

Alternative forms

  • priour (obsolete)

Etymology

From Latin prior, comparative of Old Latin *pri (before), from Proto-Indo-European *per- (beyond), *pro (before). Parallel to English former, as comparative form from same Proto-Indo-European root, whence also fore (thence before).

Pronunciation

  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˈpɹaɪɚ/
  • Rhymes: -aɪə(r)

Adjective

prior (not comparable)

  1. Advance; previous; coming before.
  2. Former, previous.

Usage notes

  • The etymological antonym is ulterior (from Latin; compare primate/ultimate for “first/last”). This is now no longer used, however, and there is no corresponding antonym. Typically either subsequent or posterior is used, but these form different pairs – precedent/subsequent and anterior/posterior – and are more formal than prior. When an opposing pair is needed, these can be used, or other pairs such as former/latter or previous/next.

Synonyms

  • anterior
  • See also Thesaurus:former

Antonyms

  • posterior

Derived terms

  • prior to

Related terms

  • priority

Translations

Adverb

prior (comparative more prior, superlative most prior)

  1. (colloquial) Previously.
    Synonyms: ago, hitherto

Translations

Noun

prior (plural priors)

  1. A high-ranking member of a monastery, usually lower in rank than an abbot.
  2. (historical) A chief magistrate in Italy.
  3. (US, law enforcement) A previous arrest or criminal conviction on someone’s record. [from 19th c.]
    • 1939, Raymond Chandler, The Big Sleep, Penguin 2011, p. 53:
      ‘And a little later we get the routine report on his prints from Washington, and he’s got a prior back in Indiana, attempted hold-up six years ago.’
  4. (statistics, Bayesian inference) A prior probability distribution, one based on information or belief before additional data is collected. [from 20th c.]

Synonyms

  • (second-in-command to an abbot): provost

Derived terms

Related terms

  • priory

Coordinate terms

  • (statistics): posterior

Translations

References

  • “prior”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.

Catalan

Etymology

From Latin prior.

Noun

prior m (plural priors, feminine priora)

  1. prior (a high-ranking member of a monastery)

Related terms

  • priorat
  • prioritat

Further reading

  • “prior” in Diccionari de la llengua catalana, segona edició, Institut d’Estudis Catalans.
  • “prior” in Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana.
  • “prior” in Diccionari normatiu valencià, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua.
  • “prior” in Diccionari català-valencià-balear, Antoni Maria Alcover and Francesc de Borja Moll, 1962.

Latin

Etymology

From Proto-Italic *priōs, from earlier *prijōs, from *pri + *-jōs, thus the comparative degree of Old Latin *pri (before), from Proto-Italic *pri from Proto-Indo-European *per- (beyond), *pro (before).

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈpri.or/, [ˈpɾiɔr]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈpri.or/, [ˈpɾiːɔr]

Adjective

prior (neuter prius, superlative prīmus); third-declension comparative adjective

  1. former, prior, previous (preceding in time)
  2. the first, the original
  3. in front
  4. (figuratively) better, superior
  5. (substantive, Medieval Latin) abbot, prior

Usage notes

  • This adjective has no positive form; rather, it serves as the comparative (prior) and superlative (prīmus) of the preposition prae. (Compare the preposition post, with comparative posterior and superlative postremus).

Declension

  • Third-declension comparative adjective.

Derived terms

  • priōrēs
  • prius
  • priusquam

Related terms

  • prīmus

Descendants

  • Catalan: prior
  • Czech: převor
  • Dutch: prior
  • English: prior
  • Finnish: priori
  • French: prieur
  • Irish: prióir
  • Galician: prior
  • Italian: priore
  • Middle High German: prior
    • German: Prior
  • Norwegian Bokmål: priori
  • Polish: przeor
  • Romanian: prior
  • Russian: приор (prior)
  • Spanish: prior

References

  • prior in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • prior in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • prior in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • prior in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[2], London: Macmillan and Co.

Spanish

Etymology

From Latin prior.

Noun

prior m (plural priores, feminine priora, feminine plural prioras)

  1. prior (a high-ranking member of a monastery)

Derived terms

  • priorazgo

Related terms

  • prioridad
  • priorato

Further reading

  • “prior” in Diccionario de la lengua española, Vigésima tercera edición, Real Academia Española, 2014.

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