Referee vs Arbiter what difference

what is difference between Referee and Arbiter

English

Etymology

From Middle English [Term?], from past participle of Old French referer (to relate, to refer), from Latin referre (to carry back, to report, to notify); as if refer +‎ -ee, that is, the person to whom something is referred for consideration.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˌɹɛf.əˈɹiː/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˌɹɛfəˈɹiː/
  • Rhymes: -iː

Noun

referee (plural referees)

  1. (sports) An umpire or judge; an official who makes sure the rules are followed during a game.
  2. A person who settles a dispute.
  3. A person who writes a letter of reference or provides a reference by phone call for someone.
    Your application, along with letters from three referees, should be received by January 31.
  4. An expert who judges the manuscript of an article or book to decide if it should be published.

Usage notes

  • In general, and as a usage guideline, a referee moves around with the game, while an umpire stays (approximately) in one place.

Related terms

  • ref

Translations

Verb

referee (third-person singular simple present referees, present participle refereeing, simple past and past participle refereed)

  1. To act as a referee.

Translations


Finnish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ˈrefereː/, [ˈre̞fe̞re̞ː]
  • IPA(key): /ˈreferiː/, [ˈre̞fe̞riː]
  • Rhymes: -efereː
  • Syllabification: re‧fe‧ree

Noun

referee

  1. referee (expert who judges the manuscript of an article or book to decide if it should be published)
    Synonym: arvioija

Declension


Spanish

Noun

referee m or f (plural referees)

  1. referee


English

Etymology

From Old French arbitre, from Latin arbiter (a witness, judge, literally one who goes to see).

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation): IPA(key): /ˈɑːbɪtə(ɹ)/

Noun

arbiter (plural arbiters)

  1. A person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a controversy between them; an arbitrator.
    • 1931, William Bennett Munro, The government of the United States, national, state, and local, page 495
      In order to protect individual liberty there must be an arbiter between the governing powers and the governed.
  2. (with of) A person or object having the power of judging and determining, or ordaining, without control; one whose power of deciding and governing is not limited.
    Television and film, not Vogue and similar magazines, are the arbiters of fashion.
  3. (electronics) A component in circuitry that allocates scarce resources.

Related terms

Translations

Verb

arbiter (third-person singular simple present arbiters, present participle arbitering, simple past and past participle arbitered)

  1. (transitive) To act as arbiter.
    • 2003, Jean-Benoit Nadeau, Julie Barlow, Sixty Million Frenchmen Can’t be Wrong: Why We Love France But Not the French, page 116
      Worse, since there was no institution to arbiter disagreements between Parliament and the government, whenever Parliament voted against the government on the smallest issues, coalitions fragmented, and governments had to be recomposed.

Further reading

  • arbiter in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913.
  • arbiter in The Century Dictionary, New York, N.Y.: The Century Co., 1911.

Anagrams

  • rarebit

Latin

Etymology

Uncertain, but probably cognate to Umbrian ařputrati (according to the judgement, abl.sg.), corresponding to Latin arbitrātū. Possibly from ad- + baetō, with sporadic d > r as in arvorsum, arfuise, thus originally meaning “one that goes to something in order to see or hear it”. However, that verb has no certain etymology, and the Umbrian pu remains unexplained. De Vaan suggests a derivation from putō to explain the Umbrian pu, however that is still morphologically difficult since the latter is based on an adjective. The voiced b would have to be exceptional or explained by some peculiarity of the řp sequence in Umbrian.

Pronunciation

  • (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈar.bi.ter/, [ˈärbɪt̪ɛr]
  • (Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈar.bi.ter/, [ˈɑrbit̪ɛr]

Noun

arbiter m (genitive arbitrī); second declension

  1. witness, spectator, onlooker
  2. (law) arbitrator, arbiter (having a wider power than a iūdex)
    1. (transferred sense) judge, umpire
  3. overseer, controller, ruler

Declension

Second-declension noun (nominative singular in -er).

Related terms

  • arbitrātus
  • arbitrium, arbiterium
  • arbitror

Descendants

References

  • arbiter” on page 175 of the Oxford Latin Dictionary (2nd ed., 2012)
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “arbiter”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 50

Further reading

  • arbiter in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • arbiter in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arbiter in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
  • arbiter in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper’s Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arbiter in William Smith et al., editor (1890) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, London: William Wayte. G. E. Marindin

Polish

Etymology

From Latin arbiter.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /arˈbʲi.tɛr/

Noun

arbiter m pers

  1. (law) arbiter (person appointed, or chosen, by parties to determine a controversy between them)
  2. authority (person)
    Synonym: autorytet
  3. (sports) referee (umpire, judge of a game)
    Synonym: sędzia

Declension

Related terms

  • (verb) arbitrażować
  • (nouns) arbitralność, arbitraż
  • (adjectives) arbitralny, arbitrażowy
  • (adverb) arbitralnie

Further reading

  • arbiter in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • arbiter in Polish dictionaries at PWN

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